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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Dynamic background subtraction is used to demonstrate that the recently suggested spline-polynomial scheme for characterizing the secondary electron background neglects an important aspect of the Auger feature. As a consequence of this neglect, area measurements using the spline approximation are difficult to relate to the true Auger current.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY 1. The actions of the sympathomimetic bronchodilator trimetoquinol (AQL 208) have been compared with those of laevoisoprenaline on the cardiac, respiratory and skeletal muscle systems of the cat under chloralose anaesthesia, and on cat isolated atrial and tracheal preparations.2. Trimetoquinol injected intravenously ranged in potency from two to four times less potent to about four times more potent than laevoisoprenaline in different in vivo experiments. Despite such wide variations in absolute potency the mean effective doses of trimetoquinol in both in vitro and in vivo studies were not significantly different (P〉0.05) from those of laevoisoprenaline.3. The effect on the soleus muscle is considered to be analogous to the muscle tremor that often occurs in man, and the results suggest that systemic administration of trimetoquinol may produce muscle tremor as an unwanted side effect in some patients.4. Trimetoquinol, in the cat, shows no evidence of the selectivity for β-adreno-receptors in different tissues reported for it in other species. It is suggested that β-receptors in the cat are less clearly differentiated and that they resemble those in man more closely than do those in other species.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-086X
    Keywords: Key words: Infertility—Fallopian tube—Recanalization—Salpingitis isthmica nodosa
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the technical success and outcome of fallopian tube recanalization (FTR) in salpingitis isthmica nodosa (SIN). Methods: SIN is a well-recognized pathological condition affecting the proximal fallopian tube and is associated with infertility and ectopic pregnancy. We reviewed the presentations, films, and case records of all patients attending for FTR for infertility from 1990 to 1994. Technical success and total, intrauterine, and ectopic pregnancy rates at follow-up were determined. Results: SIN was observed in 22 of 349 (6%) patients. FTR was attempted in 34 tubes in these 22 patients. Technical success was achieved in 23 of 34 (68%) tubes affected by SIN. In 5 of the 11 failed recanalizations, failure was due to distal obstruction. At least one tube was patent on selective postprocedural salpingography in 17 of 22 (77%) patients. There were no recorded perforations or complications. At follow-up (mean 14 months), total, intrauterine, and ectopic pregnancy rates were 23%, 18%, and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusion: FTR in SIN is technically successful and, compared with previously reported results in unselected infertility patients, is associated with only a slightly less favorable intrauterine pregnancy rate and a comparable ectopic pregnancy rate. The findings of SIN at FTR should not discourage attempted fluoroscopic transcervical recanalization.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-086X
    Keywords: Key words: Aorta, transluminal angioplasty—Arteries—Stents and prostheses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: To assess the technical success, initial clinical outcome, and intermediate follow-up of the Memotherm nitinol self-expanding stent in aortic bifurcation reconstruction. Methods: Thirty-three patients (13 male, 20 female), mean age 64 years, were treated, who had symptoms classified by the Surgical Vascular Society/International Society of Cardiovascular Surgery (SVS/ICVS) classification as grade 2 in 11 (33%), grade 3 in 19 (58%) and grade 4 in 3 (9%) patients. Lesions were classified according to severity and type. Indications for placement of a Memotherm nitinol self-expanding stent were failed angioplasty in 14 (42%), chronic occlusions in 12 (37%), and complex stenoses in seven (21%) patients. Results: Sixty-seven stents were technically successfully placed in 66 aorto-iliac segments in 33 patients, with one major complication. Initial clinical outcome was improvement in 25 (81%), no change in four (13%), and a worsening in two (6%) patients by Rutherford criteria. Mean early ankle/brachial pressure index (ABI) gain was 0.27 for occlusions and 0.05 for stenoses. Clinical follow-up was obtained in all patients, with retrospective angiographic follow-up in 28 (85%) at a mean of 16 months (range 12–26 months). The decrease in ABI and the decrease in angiographic luminal diameter at follow-up was determined as the “late loss.” The mean ABI late losses were −0.06, 0.00, and 0.09, and the mean angiographic late losses were 6.7%, 10% and 14% for occlusions, stenoses, and normal segments respectively. Primary clinical patency was 96%, primary angiographic patency was 89%, and secondary angiographic patency was 93%. Conclusion: The high technical success of stent placement, the low complication rates for aortic bifurcation reconstruction using the Memotherm self-expanding stent, and high clinical and angiographic patency maintained at intermediate follow-up support their use in aortic bifurcation reconstruction.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-086X
    Keywords: Key words: Fallopian tube—Recanalization—Sterilization reversal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: To assess the technical success and early outcome of fluoroscopically guided transcervical fallopian tube recanalization (FTR) in mid-tubal occlusion following sterilization reversal surgery. Methods: From July 1995 to January 1998, patients with greater than 12 months secondary infertility underwent hysterosalpingography (HSG). FTR was performed in proximal or mid-tubal occlusion. Cases of FTR in mid-tubal occlusion were included in this study. Technical success (defined as complete tubal patency) using a standard guidewire and hydrophilic glidewire, the number of patients with at least one patent tube, and the intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy rates were determined. Results: Twenty-six infertile patients with previous sterilization reversal underwent HSG. Eight of 26 (31%) patients (mean age 32 years, range 23–37 years), had attempted FTR for mid-tubal occlusion at the site of surgical anastomosis. Fourteen tubes were attempted as there were two previous salpingectomies. Technical success was achieved in eight of 14 (57%) tubes attempted, resulting in five of eight (62%) patients having at least one patent tube. At follow-up (mean 18 months, range 12–28 months) in these five patients there was one intrauterine pregnancy. There were no ectopic pregnancies. Conclusions: FTR in mid-tubal obstruction in infertile patients following sterilization reversal surgery is technically feasible and may result in intrauterine pregnancy. In this small group there was a lower technical success rate and lower pregnancy rate than in unselected proximal tubal occlusion.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have used the rat inflammatory air pouch model to investigate some of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic issues relating to regional drug delivery. S(+)Ibuprofen was administered either intravenously or directly into the air pouch at the same time as the irritant (carrageenan). Serial samples of exudate and plasma were then taken and assayed for drug concentrations and various efficacy markers. Ibuprofen given intrapouch, was found to inhibit in a dose-dependent manner the concentration of prostaglandin E2 and the number of white cells in the exudate. Plasma and pouch concentration-time profiles are described for s(+)Ibuprofen: there is evidence for greater drug retention in the pouch than in plasma following regional and systemic delivery.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have used the rat inflammatory air pouch model to investigate some of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic issues relating to regional drug delivery. S(+)Ibuprofen was administered either intravenously or directly into the air pouch at the same time as the irritant (carrageenan). Serial samples of exudate and plasma were then taken and assayed for drug concentrations and various efficacy markers. Ibuprofen given intrapouch, was found to inhibit in a dose-dependent manner the concentration of prostaglandin E2 and the number of white cells in the exudate. Plasma and pouch concentration-time profiles are described for s(+)Ibuprofen: there is evidence for greater drug retention in the pouch than in plasma following regional and systemic delivery.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 356 (1992), S. 266-267 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SCANNING probe techniques such as the scanning tunnelling1 and atomic force2 microscopes (the STM and AMF) have recently become important tools for studying surface structure and chemistry. A new addition to this array of techniques has recently been developed with the express purpose of studying ...
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: ketoconazole pharmacokinetics in rat ; nonlinear clearance ; nonlinear liver binding ; cytochrome P450 interactions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The disposition of ketoconazole was characterized in the rat over a wide dose/concentration range. Bolus dose (0.03–10 mg/kg) studies indicate that plasma concentration–time profiles for ketoconazole are not superimposable when dose normalized because of nonlinearities occurring in both volume of distribution and clearance. The volume of distribution decreases from 3 to less than 1 L/kg, while the plasma clearance decreases 10-fold from 25 mL/min/kg as the dose is escalated. From these results, infusion rates were calculated to maintain the plasma concentrations achieved with particular bolus doses. The curvilinear relationship between steady-state plasma concentration (0.015–8.3 mg/L) and ketoconazole infusion rate (0.021–2.45 mg/hr/kg) was analyzed in terms of Michaelis–Menten kinetics. A V max of 3.2 mg/hr/kg and K m of 2.1 mg/L were obtained by nonlinear regression analysis. At the end of the ketoconazole infusion, liver, adrenals and kidneys were removed and assayed for ketoconazole. Tissue-to-plasma partition coefficients for the liver and adrenals showed a marked dependence upon steady-state plasma concentration. Both parameters (liver, 22; and adrenals, 53) showed a decrease of approximately 10-fold as the plasma concentrations were increased. In contrast, the kidney:plasma partition coefficient (1.8), blood:plasma concentration ratio (0.6), and plasma binding (96%) of ketoconazole did not show a concentration dependence over the range studied. It is concluded that the liver is an important determinant of ketoconazole's volume of distribution and that saturation of this process accounts largely for the reduction in volume of distribution with increasing dose. The characterization of ketoconazole's hepatic clearance and binding in the rat helps resolve the apparent discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo observations on this azole's interaction with cytochrome P450.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: omeprazole ; diazepam ; inhibition of cytochrome P450 ; drug–drug interactions ; in vitro–in vivo correlations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. The inhibitory effects of omeprazole on diazepam metabolism in vitro and in vivo are compared in the rat. Methods. 3-hydroxylation and N-demethylation of diazepam was investigated in the presence of a range of omeprazole concentrations (2-500µM) in hepatic microsomes and hepatocytes. Zero order infusions together with matched bolus doses of omeprazole were used to achieve a range of steady state plasma concentrations (10-50mg/ L) and to study the diazepam-omeprazole interaction in vivo. Results. The 3-hydroxlation pathway was more prone to inhibition (KIs 108 ± 30 and 28 ± 11 µM in microsomes and hepatocytes, respectively) than the demethylation pathway (KIs of 226 ± 76 and 59 ± 27 µM in microsomes and hepatocytes, respectively). In both in vitro systems, the mechanism of inhibition was competitive with Km/KI ratios larger than 1 for the 3HDZ pathway and smaller than 1 for the NDZ pathway. There was an omeprazole concentration dependent decrease in diazepam clearance in vivo which could be modelled using a simple inhibition equation with a KI of 57µM (19.8mg/L). In contrast there was no statistically significant change in the steady state volume of distribution for diazepam in the presence of omeprazole. Conclusions. The in vivo KI for the omeprazole: diazepam inhibition interaction shows closer agreement with the KI values obtained in hepatocytes than with those observed in microsomes.
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