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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Previous studies have suggested that the acid secretory capacity of the Chinese population is lower than that of the Western population.Aim : To compare the effect of lansoprazole 30 mg and 15 mg once daily on the 24-h oesophageal and intragastric pH profiles in Chinese patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.Methods : Forty-four patients (male to female ratio, 27 : 17; mean age, 53 years; 55% with oesophagitis) with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease were randomized to receive lansoprazole 30 mg or 15 mg once daily for 4 weeks. Measurement of the 24-h oesophageal and intragastric pH, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms and quality of life was performed at baseline and during the last week of each dosing period.Results : Lansoprazole 30 mg maintained an intragastric pH 〉 4 for 10.5 h vs. 9.6 h for lansoprazole 15 mg (P = 0.44). The percentage total time at oesophageal pH 〈 4 was similar for lansoprazole 30 mg and 15 mg (2.0% vs. 2.3%, P = 0.30). The proportion of patients with complete cure of heartburn and acid regurgitation and the quality of life assessment were similar for lansoprazole 30 mg and 15 mg. Both dosages of lansoprazole were well tolerated and the compliance was 100% in both groups.Conclusion : Lansoprazole dosages of 30 mg and 15 mg once daily provide a satisfactory decrease for oesophageal acid exposure and are equally effective for the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in the Chinese population.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Results from epidemiological studies and therapeutic clinical trials have shown that Helicobacter pylori infection causes acute and chronic active gastritis and is the initiating factor for the majority of peptic ulcer disease. Eradication of the infection with antibiotics resolves gastritis and restores normal gastric physiology, accelerates healing of peptic ulcer disease, and virtually eliminates recurrence of duodenal ulcer disease.The infection also plays an important role in the initiation and/or progression of gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, which may eventually lead to the development of distal gastric cancer. Furthermore, almost all patients with gastric MALT lymphoma are infected with H. pylori and cure of the infection leads to histological regression of the tumor and maintains the regression in over 80% of patients during long-term follow-up.Preliminary uncontrolled data from Japan show that eradication of the infection significantly reduced metachronous intestinal-type gastric cancer following initial endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer and might also prevent the progression of gastric adenoma to gastric dysplasia or gastric cancer.Although this overwhelming evidence has demonstrated that H. pylori infection is bad for humans, some have questioned the wisdom of eradicating the infection in all those infected. Their arguments are largely based on hypothesis and circumstantial evidence: 1) Less than 20% of all H. pylori infected persons will develop significant clinical consequences in their lifetime. 2) H. pylori strains are highly diverse at a genetic level and are of different virulence. 3) The antiquity of H. pylori infection in humans and their co-evolution suggests that H. pylori may be a commensal to humans. Eradication of H. pylori may remove some beneficial bacterial strains and may provoke esophageal disease or gastric cancer at the cardia.However, careful review of the literature confirms that H. pylori infection is a serious pathogen albeit in a minority of those infected. It remains for carefully designed prospective studies, rather than hypothesis to make changes in the current consensus position.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract In this article, the crystal structure and superconductivity of a new superconducting phase TlBa2CaCu2O6.5 (T c =72.5 K) in Tl−Ba−Ca−Cu−O system are studied. The crystal structure of the compound TlBa2CaCu2O6.5 has been determined by means of X-ray powder diffraction method. It belongs to primary tetragonal lattice with lattice parameters:a=3.847 Å,c=12.73 Å. Its space group isD 4h 1 −P4/mmm. Each unit cell contains one formular unit. The arrangements of ions in a unit cell are following: 1 Ca, and 1 Tl cations occupy 1(a) and 1(d) equivalent point positions respectively. 2 Cu cations occupy 2(h) (z=0.127) equivalent point positions. 2 Ba cations occupy 2(g) (z=0.281) equivalent point positions. 6.5 O anions respectively occupy 1(b), 2(h) (z=0.281) and 4(i) (z=0.127) equivalent point positions. Occupation factor is 0.929. The crystal structure of TlBa2CaCu2O6.5 is quite similar to those of the other superconducting phases in Tl−Ba−Ca−Cu−O system. All cations are distributed at positions of (0, 0,z) and (1/2, 1/2,z) alternately. The oxygen deficient pseudo-perovskite unit Ba−Cu−Ca−Cu−Ba is separated two Tl−O layers in the crystal structure of Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8. However, the oxygen deficient pseudo-perovskite unit Ba−Cu−Ca−Cu−Ba is separated by single Tl−O layer in the crystal structure of TlBa2CaCu2O6.5. The relations among the crystal structures of the superconducting phases as well as the relation between the crystal structure and superconductivity are discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Recent studies suggest that the Helicobacter pylori eradication rate in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia is lower when compared to patients with peptic ulcer diseases.Aim : The aim of this study was to study the efficacy of triple therapy for H. pylori infection in patients with duodenal ulcer vs. patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia.Methods : A total of 582 Chinese patients with proven H. pylori infection were recruited to receive: omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg all given twice daily for 7 days (OCA regime). Endoscopy with rapid urease test, histology and culture were performed before treatment. Post-treatment H. pylori status was determined by 13C-urea breath test. Metronidazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin resistance was defined as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 〉8 μg/mL, 〉1 μg/mL and 〉1 μg/mL, respectively.Results : A significantly higher (intention-to-treat/per-protocol) eradication rate was found in patients with duodenal ulcer than those with non-ulcer dyspepsia (91/94% vs. 84/88% respectively, P = 0.011 and P = 0.016). Clarithromycin resistance rate was higher in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia than those with duodenal ulcer (14% vs. 6%, P = 0.015). Clarithromycin resistance (40% vs. 5%, P 〈 0.001, OR 12, 95% CI: 5.7–24.3) and the diagnosis of non-ulcer dyspepsia (91% vs. 84%, P = 0.011, OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2–3.3) significantly affected the success of H. pylori eradication.Conclusion : Clarithromycin resistance accounts for the significantly lower and suboptimal H. pylori eradication rate of OCA regimen in Chinese patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia compared to those with duodenal ulcer.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : The natural history of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Asian population has not been studied before.Aim : To study the onset and disappearances of reflux symptoms over a 1-year period in the Chinese population.Methods : A population-based telephone survey was performed in 2002 and repeated 1 year later. The change in prevalence rate, onset and disappearance of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and the change in diagnoses were assessed. Factors associated with the onset and disappearance of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease were studied.Results : A total of 712 subjects completed the first and second survey. The annual, monthly and weekly prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease were 34.1%, 10.1% and 2.7% respectively. The onset rate (per 1000 person-year) and disappearance rate of any gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and frequent gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (≥ monthly symptoms) were 209, 40; and 395, 243 respectively. Forty-four percentage of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease subjects changed their diagnoses in 2003. By multiple logistic regression analysis, high anxiety score (OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.2) and higher educational level (OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3–6.3) were associated with the onset of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; while the frequency of acid regurgitation (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.17–0.70) and use of antisecretory therapy (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28–0.89) were associated with the disappearance of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.Conclusion : The prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is stable over 1 year. Higher anxiety score and higher educational level were associated with the onset of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, while lower frequency of reflux symptoms and infrequent use of antisecretory therapy were associated with the disappearance of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in a Chinese population.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Population-based data on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Chinese are lacking. The prevalence, clinical spectrum and health care-seeking behaviour of subjects with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease were studied.Methods : Ethnic Chinese (3605) were invited to participate in a telephone survey using a validated gastro-oesophageal reflux disease questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.Results : A total of 2209 subjects (58% female; mean age, 40.3 years) completed the interview. The annual, monthly and weekly prevalence rates of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease were 29.8%, 8.9% and 2.5%, respectively. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms were associated with non-cardiac chest pain [odds ratio (OR), 2.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.7–3.1], dyspepsia (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4–2.5), globus (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7), acid feeling in the stomach (OR, 5.8; 95% CI, 4.5–7.5) and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5–3.6), but not with dysphagia, bronchitis, asthma, hoarseness and pneumonia. Patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease had a significantly higher anxiety and depression score and required more days off work when compared with subjects without. The frequency of heartburn (P = 0.032), female gender (P 〈 0.001), degree of depression (P = 0.004) and social morbidity (P 〈 0.001) were independent factors associated with health care-seeking behaviour.Conclusion : The prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease was lower than that in Western populations, but carried a significant socio-economic burden in the studied Chinese population. The frequency of heartburn, female gender and psychosocial factors were associated with health care utilization in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To compare the effect of lansoprazole, 30 mg once daily, with that of pantoprazole, 40 mg once daily, for the inhibition of gastric acid secretion.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉Methods:Two randomized, single-blind, two-way, crossover studies were conducted in 74 healthy male volunteers. Lansoprazole, 30 mg, or pantoprazole, 40 mg, was administered once daily for five consecutive days with at least a 2-week washout period between regimens. Ambulatory 24-h intragastric pH was recorded at baseline and on days 1 and 5 of each crossover treatment period.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉Results:On day 1 in both studies, lansoprazole, 30 mg, produced significantly higher mean 24-h intragastric pH values when compared to pantoprazole, 40 mg (3.78 vs. 3.08, P 〈 0.001, and 3.97 vs. 3.20, P 〈 0.001, in the first and second studies, respectively). In both studies, lansoprazole, 30 mg, produced significantly greater proportions of time that the intragastric pH was above 3, 4 and 5 when compared with pantoprazole, 40 mg (P 〈 0.005 in all comparisons). By treatment day 5 in the first study, lansoprazole, 30 mg, continued to produce a higher mean 24-h intragastric pH (4.15 vs. 3.91, P=0.014) and a significantly greater percentage of time that the intragastric pH was above 4 (63% vs. 56%, P=0.017) and 5 (41% vs. 30%, P 〈 0.001) when compared with pantoprazole, 40 mg. In the second study, the effects on intragastric pH were comparable between the two treatment groups. Headache was the most commonly reported adverse experience (nine lansoprazole-treated subjects, seven in the first study and two in the second study; six pantoprazole-treated subjects, five in the first study and one in the second study).〈section xml:id="abs1-4"〉〈title type="main"〉Conclusions:Lansoprazole, 30 mg once daily, produces a faster onset and greater degree of acid inhibition than pantoprazole, 40 mg once daily. The implications for these differences on symptom relief and healing of erosive oesophagitis should be explored.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background and aims: To develop a validated gastro-oesophageal disease (GERD) symptom questionnaire for the Chinese population.Methods: One hundred Chinese patients with GERD and 101 healthy Chinese controls were presented with a 20-item GERD questionnaire in the Chinese language (Chinese GERDQ). Quality of life in GERD patients was assessed by SF-36. A standard dose of proton pump inhibitors for 4 weeks was prescribed to 35 patients with newly diagnosed GERD. The Chinese GERDQ was performed before, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after treatment. Concept, content, construct, discriminant validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed.Results: Seven items were selected by logistic regression to account for most of the differences between controls and GERD patients with a good reproducibility and internal consistency. A cut-off score of equal or greater than 12 was determined to discriminate between controls and GERD patients with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 84%. The Chinese GERDQ correlated negatively with five domains of the SF-36 and discriminated between GERD patients who reported symptomatic improvement during proton pump inhibitor treatment and symptoms deterioration upon withdrawal of proton pump inhibitor treatment.Conclusions: The Chinese GERDQ could be used in epidemiological studies to assess the frequency and severity of GERD in patient populations and in interventional studies of GERD.
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