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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  125. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie; 20080422-20080425; Berlin; DOC08dgch9789 /20080416/
    Publication Date: 2008-04-14
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  GMS Journal for Medical Education; VOL: 36; DOC2 /20190215/
    Publication Date: 2019-02-15
    Description: Objective: To develop a scientifically sound and standardized medical language examination for the State of Bavaria according to the requirements set forth by the 87th Conference of State Health Ministers. This Sprachtest für Ausländische Mediziner (SAM, Language Test for Foreign Physicians) ought to become part of the licensing procedure for foreign physicians in Germany. Using testing stations that are situation-based, it will assess medical language competence and communication skills at the proficiency level of C1.Methods: Case scenarios for four mini-interviews of 10 minutes each were developed. For the written part of the exam, consisting of two separate testing stations with a combined duration of 40 minutes, one video of a physician taking a patient's history and one annotated set of laboratory results were developed. Based on the analysis of existing scientific literature as well as real-life examples, features and characteristics of professional medical language were identified. This served as the basis for the development of itemized rating scales for each of the testing stations. The exam was validated in three simulated trial runs. Each run was video-recorded and subsequently graded by a team of test-raters. Results: 19 participants took part in the three trial runs. A benchmark (gold standard) could be set for 18 of these. A ROC-analysis yielded an AUC-value of .83. This confirmed the predictive quality of the SAM-test. The reliability of the SAM-test could be calculated for only ten participants. The internal consistency, calculated with the use of Cronbach's Alpha, was .85. The pass/fail mark was calculated based on the Youden-Index and yielded a result of 〉60%.Conclusion: The SAM-test presents a statistically valid medical language examination with a high level of objectivity. As required, it tests language proficiency at the level of C1 and uses authentic communication scenarios within a standardized test setting. Additional studies with larger test samples will help to further validate this test and thus guarantee a higher degree of reliability.
    Description: Zielsetzung: Entwicklung einer wissenschaftlich fundierten und standardisierten Fachsprachenprüfung für das Bundesland Bayern gemäß den Vorgaben der 87. Gesundheitsministerkonferenz (GMK). Der SAM - Sprachtest für ausländische Mediziner soll Teil des Approbationsverfahrens ausländischer Ärzte und Ärztinnen sein. In situativen Prüfungsstationen soll er fachsprachliche und kommunikative Kompetenzen auf C1-Niveau abprüfen. Methodik: Für vier je zehnminütige Mini-Interviews wurden Fallvignetten ausgearbeitet, für die 40-minütige schriftliche Prüfungsstation, die aus zwei Teilaufgaben besteht, wurde ein Video einer Anamnese sowie kommentierte Laborergebnisse als Basis der Aufgabenstellungen erstellt. Fachsprachlichen Kompetenzen wurden anhand von Analysen wissenschaftlicher Literatur und empirischer Beispiele fixiert und als Items zu Bewertungsskalen für jede Teilstation zusammengefasst. In drei Simulationen wurden die Prüfungen per Video (SAM-Prüfungssoftware) aufgezeichnet und im Anschluss von Bewerterteams bewertet. Ergebnisse: 19 Probanden nahmen an drei Simulationen teil. Eine Goldstandardsetzung konnte bei 18 von ihnen durchgeführt werden. Eine ROC-Analyse ergab einen AUC-Wert von .83, was die prognostische Qualität des SAM bestätigt. Die Reliabilität des SAM konnte nur für zehn Probanden berechnet werden. Die mit Cronbachs Alpha berechnete interne Konsistenz betrug .85. Die Bestehensgrenze wurde mithilfe des Youden-Index ermittelt. Für den SAM ergab sich dabei die Grenze von 〉60%.Schlussfolgerung: Mit dem SAM wurde eine valide Fachsprachenprüfung mit hoher Test-Objektivität vorgelegt, die in authentischen Kommunikationssituationen und einem standardisierten Setting die Fachsprachenkenntnisse im geforderten C1-Niveau abprüft. Mit weiteren Erprobungen und einer größeren Stichprobe kann der SAM weiter validiert und eine höhere Test-Reliabilität sichergestellt werden.
    Keywords: medical language ; exam ; foreign physicians ; Prüfung ; Fachsprache ; ausländische Ärzte ; ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: article
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  • 3
    Keywords: CELLS ; IN-VIVO ; NEWLY SYNTHESIZED PROTEINS ; DISULFIDE BOND FORMATION ; HEAT-SHOCK-PROTEIN ; OUTER-MEMBRANE PROTEINS ; TRIGGER FACTOR ; ESCHERICHIA-COLI PROTEINS ; PEPTIDYLPROLYL CIS,TRANS-ISOMERASE FKPA ; REDOX-REGULATED CHAPERONE ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR SIGMA(32)
    Abstract: Bacterial cells are frequently exposed to dramatic fluctuations in their environment, which cause perturbation in protein homeostasis and lead to protein misfolding. Bacteria have therefore evolved powerful quality control networks consisting of chaperones and proteases that cooperate to monitor the folding states of proteins and to remove misfolded conformers through either refolding or degradation. The levels of the quality control components are adjusted to the folding state of the cellular proteome through the induction of compartment specific stress responses. In addition, the activities of several quality control components are directly controlled by these stresses, allowing for fast activation. Severe stress can, however, overcome the protective function of the proteostasis network leading to the formation of protein aggregates, which are sequestered at the cell poles. Protein aggregates are either solubilized by AAA+ chaperones or eliminated through cell division, allowing for the generation of damage-free daughter cells
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21441580
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  • 4
  • 5
    Keywords: IN-VITRO ; MODEL ; RESOLUTION ; COMPLEX ; BIOLOGY ; ESCHERICHIA-COLI ; POLYPEPTIDE ; TRANSLOCATION ; NEWLY SYNTHESIZED PROTEINS ; MEMBRANE-PROTEINS ; SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE ; DNAK ; TRANSLATING RIBOSOMES
    Abstract: As nascent polypeptides exit ribosomes, they are engaged by a series of processing, targeting, and folding factors. Here, we present a selective ribosome profiling strategy that enables global monitoring of when these factors engage polypeptides in the complex cellular environment. Studies of the Escherichia coli chaperone trigger factor (TF) reveal that, though TF can interact with many polypeptides, beta-barrel outer-membrane proteins are the most prominent substrates. Loss of TF leads to broad outer-membrane defects and premature, cotranslational protein translocation. Whereas in vitro studies suggested that TF is prebound to ribosomes waiting for polypeptides to emerge from the exit channel, we find that in vivo TF engages ribosomes only after similar to 100 amino acids are translated. Moreover, excess TF interferes with cotranslational removal of the N-terminal formyl methionine. Our studies support a triaging model in which proper protein biogenesis relies on the fine-tuned, sequential engagement of processing, targeting, and folding factors
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22153074
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  • 6
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  122. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie; 20050405-20050408; München; DOC05dgch3338 /20050615/
    Publication Date: 2005-06-16
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 7
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  125. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie; 20080422-20080425; Berlin; DOC08dgch9802 /20080416/
    Publication Date: 2008-04-14
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 8
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  122. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie; 20050405-20050408; München; DOC05dgch2946 /20050615/
    Publication Date: 2005-06-16
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Pseudomonas ; Disease predisposition ; Take-all ; Gaeumannomyces ; Seed treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Field plots were established in Indiana, Oregon, and Montana to evaluate the potential for biological control of various strains of bacteria as seed treatments to reduce the severity of take-all root, crown, and foot rot of wheat. The bacteria were grown in liquid broth Cas-amino acid broth media, mixed with finely ground peat, and applied to seed with methyl cellulose as a glue just before planting in field soils conducive for severe take-all. Autoclave-sterilized peat (minus bacteria) seed treatments increased take-all, immobilized Mn, and reduced plant vigor and grain yields. These effects were intensified when the pH of the natural peat was adjusted from 5.2 to 7.0 with CaCO3. The ability of the bacterial strains to counteract this peat-induced predisposition to take-all varied, and was influenced by planting site, genetic tolerance of the cultivar, and N treatment. Although the strains differed in their ability to suppress the peat-induced take-all, none of the isolates fully nullified the deleterious effects of the peat carrier. It is clear from this study that the carrier used with potential biological-contol agents may have a greater influence on disease than the biological agent.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Two plaque variants of an herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1-strain, Thea-mP and Thea-MP, which already were found to be similar by bouyant density and UV-inactivation, were compared by neutralization tests, pock size on the chorioallantoic membrane, growth at different temperatures, comparative titration at 36°, 40° and 41° C, thermal inactivation at 41° C, elution from calcium phosphate column, and interaction with heparine. They only differed by yield and endpoint titration at 41° C. The conformity of these plaque variants contrasts withRoizman's strains NT-mP and NT-MP and shows, that the considerable differences in plaque morphology are also consistent with minor biologic differences. One type 2 strain was investigated in parallel with the plaque variants in some of the experiments. The growth of this strain was more thermosensitive, but thermal inactivation was similar as compared with the type 1 plaque variants. The type 2 strain was also more sensitive to the inhibitory action of heparin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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