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  • 1
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia has a variable clinical course. Genomic aberrations identify prognostic subgroups, pointing towards distinct underlying biological mechanisms that are poorly understood. In particular it remains unclear whether the prognostic subgroups of chronic lymphocytic leukemia are characterized by different levels of leukemogenic proteins. DESIGN AND METHODS: Expression of 23 proteins involved in apoptosis, proliferation, DNA damage, and signaling or whose genes map to chromosomal regions known to be critical in chronic lymphocytic leukemia was quantified in 185 cytogenetically well characterized cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia using immunoblotting. Cases were categorized hierarchically into deletion(17p), deletion(11q), trisomy 12, deletion(13q) as sole abnormality or normal karyotype. Statistical analysis was performed for expression differences between these subgroups. In addition, the expression levels of CDK4, P27 and P53 were quantified over the clinical course and compared to levels in immunopurified B cells from healthy individuals. RESULTS: In subgroups with a good prognosis, differential expression was mainly seen for proteins that regulate apoptosis. In contrast, in cytogenetic subgroups with a worse prognosis, differential expression was mostly detected for proteins that control DNA damage and proliferation. Expression levels of CDK4, P27 and P53 were higher compared to those in B cells from healthy individuals and significantly correlated with increasing hierarchical risk. In addition, no significant longitudinal changes of expression levels of CDK4, P27 and P53 could be detected in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in expression levels of apoptosis- and proliferation-controlling proteins define distinct prognostic subgroups of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and uncover a correlation of levels of CDK4, P27 and P53 proteins with higher hierarchical risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20713460
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1591-9528
    Keywords: Lymphocytes, subpopulations ; Lymphocytes, functional heterogeneity ; Lymphocytes, immunoglobulin determinants ; Lymphocytes, receptor sits for immune complexes ; Lymphocyten, Subpopulationen ; Lymphocyten, funktionelle Heterogenität ; Lymphocyten, Immunglobulindeterminanten ; Lymphocyten, Oberflächenreceptoren für Immunkomplexe
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Aus verschiedenen Organen isolierte lymphatische Zellen wurden auf das Vorhandensein von Immunglobulindeterminanten an ihrer Oberfläche und auf Receptoren für Antigen-Antikörper-Komplementkomplexe untersucht. Durch simultane Untersuchungen konnte gezeigt werden, daß beide untersuchten Zellpopulationen in der Milz und im Lymphknoten in Ähnlicher Häufigkeit nachgewiesen werden können, während sie in Thymuszellsuspensionen weitgehend fehlten. Wurden Lymphocyten mit Immunglobulindeterminanten durch Zusatz von Anti-leichte Ketten-(Kappa-)Antiseren und Komplement lysiert, so erniedrigte sich der Prozentsatz von CRL unter den überlebenden Zellen deutlich. Im Gegensatz dazu war der Anteil von CRL nach Vorbehandlung von Lymphocyten mit Anti-Thymuszellen-Antiserum oder mit Anti-θ-Antiserum und Komplement stark erhöht. Wurden Lymphocytensuspensionen durch Zentrifugation in einem diskontinuierlichen Albumingradienten von CRL gereinigt, so konnte ein gleichzeitiger Verlust von Zellen mit Immunglobulindeterminanten beobachtet werden. Im Gegensatz dazu stieg in den so behandelten Zellsuspensionen der Anteil von Lymphocyten, die mit Anti-Thymuszellen-Antiserum oder mit Anti-θ-Antiserum reagierten, deutlich an. Schließlich konnten Immunglobulindeterminanten durch eine kombinierte Methode an etwa 85% der CRL dargestellt werden, während dies nur an einem vergleichsweise geringen Teil der non-CRL (etwa 15%) beobachtet werden konnte. Aus diesen Befunden schlossen wir, daß beide untersuchten Eigenschaften Marker ein und derselben „knochenmarksabhängigen“ Lymphocytenpopulation darstellen und diskutierten die Bedeutung dieser Zellen bei der Anreicherung von Antigenen in bestimmten Abschnitten des lymphatischen Systems.
    Notes: Summary On mice lymphocytes isolated from thymus, lymphnodes and spleen we investigated the portion of cells bearing immunoglobulin determinants and those with receptor sites for antigen-antibody-complement complexes (CRL). Lymphocytes with immunoglobulin determinants were evaluated by fluorescent staining and by cytotoxic assays employing anti kappa antisera. CRL were detected by incubating lymphocytes with sensitized and complement coated red cells (EAC). Both cell populations were found in similar frequency in cell suspensions of lymphnodes and spleens, whereas in the thymus both were almost missing. If lymphocytes bearing immunoglobulin determinants were lysed by addition of anti kappa antiserum and complement, the percentage of CRL within the surviving cells was very markedly reduced. By contrast a comparable increase of CRL was observed after pretreatment of spleen cells with anti thymocyte antiserum or with antiθ antiserum and complement. By centrifugation in a discontinous albumin gradient lymphocyte suspensions containing a very low number of CRL were obtained. These suspensions were enriched of lymphocytes reacting with anti thymocyte antiserum and with antiθ antiserum, but deficient on cells with immunoglobulin determinants. After staining lymphocytes bearing immunoglobulin determinants with appropriate fluorescent antisera they were incubated with EAC. By these means both markers were simultaneously evaluated. Immunoglobulin determinants were demonstrated on about 85% of CRL, but only on 15% of non-CRL. From these experiments we concluded a close correlation between lymphocytes bearing immunoglobulin determinants and CRL. Both features were primarily present on so called bone marrow derived cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Circular dorsal condyle ; Computer simulation ; Cruciate ligaments ; Knee kinematics ; Knee stability ; Refixation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract We used γ-γ coincidence spectrometry to investigate the possible presence of a meteoritical component in 27 samples of South African diamictites. Recently, several studies have suggested that some tillites/diamictites may represent impact breccias, but a petrographical study by our group found no evidence for the presence of impact-characteristic shocked minerals. The siderophile elements, such as Cr, Co, Ni, and, especially, the platinum group elements, have high abundances in meteorites, but low abundances in terrestrial crustal rocks. The Ir content of the diamictites was measured with the new iridium coincidence spectrometer (ICS) at the University of Vienna, with detection limits of around 0.02 ppb. No enrichments in the contents of Ir and other siderophile elements compared to average crustal concentrations were found; thus, no unequivocal evidence for an impact origin of these diamictites of the South African Dwyka Group can be documented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A new ICS system has recently been constructed at the University of Vienna. Using low-energy planar detectors and improved electronic components, the detection limit could be lowered to about ≤20 ng/g for carbonate rocks. As standards, either synthetic iridium standards loaded on high-purity quartz powder, or well characterized geological reference materials, were used. In a series of test measurements we attempted to optimize external factors, such as sample size, irradiation time and flux, decay time, and measuring time, and to determine the optimal electronic configuration, including shaping time, coincidence time, range, and gain. Further measurements are geared towards the establishment of a simple and effective routine procedure for a variety of rock types containing iridium at concentrations within the 0.02–1 ppb range.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1435-2451
    Keywords: Small cell lung cancer ; Stage dependent surgery ; Chemotherapy ; Radiotherapy ; Kleinzelliges Bronchialcarcinom ; Stadiengerechte Chirurgie ; Chemotherapie ; Radiotherapie
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In enger Kooperation von Chirurgen, Chemotherapeuten und Strahlentherapeuten wurde in den letzten 9 Jahren folgendes Therapiekonzept zur Behandlung des kleinzelligen Bronchialcarcinoms (limited disease) entwickelt. Stadium I, II: 1) Radikale Resektion. 2) Chemotherapie. 3) Cerebrale Bestrahlungsprophylaxe. 4) Lokale Radiotherapie. Stadium III: 1) Chemotherapie. 2) cerebrale Prophylaxe. 3) Radikale Operation im Ausmaß der ursprünglichen Tumorausdehnung. 4) Lokale Bestrahlung. Die bisherigen Ergebnisse bei 15 Patienten sind ermutigend.
    Notes: Summary As a result of strict cooperation between oncologists, surgeons and radiotherapists we developed a comprehensive combination therapy for small cell lung cancer (limited disease): Stage I, II: 1) radical tumour resection. 2) chemotherapy (Cohen). 3) cerebral radiation prophylaxis. 4) locoregional radiotherapy. Stage III: 1) Chemotherapy. 2) cerebral radiation prophylaxis. 3) lung resection in an extension required by the initial tumour. 4) radiotherapy (local). The preliminary results in 15 patients are encouraging.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Am Modellkreislauf wurde in 89 Einzelmessungen bei kontinuierlicher und pulsierender Strömung die Beziehung zwischen videodensitometrisch mittels Frontgeschwindigkeit bestimmtem und elektromagnetisch ermitteltem Fluß untersucht. Der Rohrdurchmesser der videodensitometrischen Meßstrecke lag zwischen 0,305 cm und 0,518 cm. Zwischen den Flußgeschwindigkeiten bestand bis zu einer Reynold-Zahl von Re=225 ein linearer Zusammenhang. Dabei wurde der wahre (elektromagnetische Messung) Fluß bei kontinuierlicher Strömung um 21% (r=0,99; Syx=±14.5 ml/min) und bei pulsierender Strömung um 24% (r=0,98; Syx=±20.8 ml/min) überschätzt. Danach ist unter Berücksichtigung der Überschätzung eine videodensitometrische Bestimmung des phasischen und mittleren Flusses zuverlässig möglich.
    Notes: Summary The relation between videodensitometrically measured front velocity and electromagnetically assessed flow was examined in a circulatory model with continuous as well as pulsatile flow (89 experiments). The diameter of the tubes in the videodensitometric measuring section was 0.305 to 0.518 cm. A linear correlation was proved in flow velocities up to Reynold's number Re=225. The exact flow, measured electromagnetically, was overestimated in continuous flow by 21% (r=0.99, Syx=±14.5 ml/min) and in pulsatile flow by 24% (r=0.98, Syx=±20.8 ml/min). In view of these results the phasic and average flow can be calculated acurately using videodensitometric techniques.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Head and neck tumors ; Leukocytes ; Interleukin 2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We examined tumor infiltrating leukocytes (TIL) in frozen sections of 28 biopsies from squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN). In so doing, we used monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) directed against various leukocyte antigens. As defined by HLe-1+ cells, leukocyte infiltration was present in all biopsies. The amount of HLe-1+ cells was more often greater in stage III than in stage IV lesions. Most of the TIL were identified as CD5+ T-lymphocytes. In contrast, CD19+ B-cells were sparse in most biopsies. CD14+ monocytes/ macrophages were found in only a few specimens. The relative proportion of CD4+ T-helper cells was higher than or at least equal to CD8+ suppressor/ cytotoxic cells in all samples tested. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor+ lymphocytes were evident in 13 of 22 biopsies stained for CD25 reactivity, and were more often observed in stage III than in stage IV tumors. All biopsies from recurrent tumors had no detectable IL-2 receptor+ cells. Our findings provide evidence for a positive correlation between a greater amount of TIL in earlier stages of SCCHN. The presence of IL-2+ lymphocytes suggests that SCCHN may be capable of activating resting lymphocytes for further IL-2¡nduced proliferation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: PACS:03.80.+r General theory of scattering – 24.90.+d Other topics in nuclear reactions: general – 25.40.-h Nucleon-induced reactions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract: A generalized Newton–Sabatier inversion method which permits extraction from scattering data of central and spin-orbit potentials is presented. The inversion method originally developed by Sabatier and further elaborated by Hooshyar and Richardson, has been reformulated to lead to physically reasonable solutions and to allow for its numerical implementation. Numerical problems due to the occurrence of singularities in the transformation kernel are discussed and a successful application using schematic scattering data is reported.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Es wird ein epidemiologisches Modell zur Beschreibung von Epidemien mit Typhus- bzw. typhoid verlaufenden Paratyphuserkrankungen zusammen mit einem deterministischen Ansatz zur quantitativen Darstellung dieses Modells vorgestellt. Das Modell wird an einer Typhussowie zwei Paratyphusepidemien geprüft, die sich in der Bundesrepublik ereigneten. Es war möglich, den Verlauf dieser Epidemien hinreichend genau zu beschreiben und Hinweise auf die Auswirkung verschiedener Interventionen (z. B. orale Impfung oder hygienische Maßnahmen) zu erhalten.
    Notes: Summary This paper presents an epidemiological model for typhoid fever epidemics or paratyphoid diseases with an enteric course, as well as a deterministic approach for the quantitative representation of this model. The model has been tested against one typhoid and two paratyphoid epidemics which occurred in the Federal Republic of Germany. It was possible to simulate the course of these epidemics with sufficient precision, and to obtain information on the effects of various interventions (e.g. oral vaccination or hygiene measures).
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