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  • 1
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of heart failure. The carboxypeptidase cathepsin A is a novel target in the treatment of cardiac failure. We aim to show that recently developed inhibitors of the protease cathepsin A attenuate post-MI heart failure. METHODS: Mice were subjected to permanent left anterior descending artery (LAD) ligation or sham operation. 24 h post-surgery, LAD-ligated animals were treated with daily doses of the cathepsin A inhibitor SAR1 or placebo. After 4 weeks, the three groups (sham, MI-placebo, MI-SAR1) were evaluated. RESULTS: Compared to sham-operated animals, placebo-treated mice showed significantly impaired cardiac function and increased plasma BNP levels. Cathepsin A inhibition prevented the increase of plasma BNP levels and displayed a trend towards improved cardiac functionality. Proteomic profiling was performed for the three groups (sham, MI-placebo, MI-SAR1). More than 100 proteins were significantly altered in placebo-treated LAD ligation compared to the sham operation, including known markers of cardiac failure as well as extracellular/matricellular proteins. This ensemble constitutes a proteome fingerprint of myocardial infarction induced by LAD ligation in mice. Cathepsin A inhibitor treatment normalized the marked increase of the muscle stress marker CA3 as well as of Iggamma 2b and fatty acid synthase. For numerous further proteins, cathepsin A inhibition partially dampened the LAD ligation-induced proteome alterations. CONCLUSIONS: Our proteomic and functional data suggest that cathepsin A inhibition has cardioprotective properties and support a beneficial effect of cathepsin A inhibition in the treatment of heart failure after myocardial infarction.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27246731
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Hypothalamic leptinoceptive neurones can be visualized by histochemical demonstration of leptin-induced nuclear translocation of the signalling molecule STAT3. We investigated the relationship of the leptinoceptive neurones to the somatostatin signalling system. With double-labelling immunohistochemistry, we studied the colocalization of leptin-activated transcription factor, STAT3, with somatostatin receptor subtypes, sst1, sst2A, sst2B, sst3 and sst4, or the neuropeptide itself, in the rat hypothalamus. Immunoreactivity for all the entities was widely distributed throughout the entire hypothalamus. Despite the wide distribution, only few cases of colocalization of somatostatin with leptin-activated STAT3 were detected in the paraventricular, arcuate and dorsomedial nuclei. A moderate to high degree of colocalization of nuclear STAT3 and all investigated subtypes of somatostatin receptors was found in the lateral and dorsal hypothalamic areas and in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus. Immunoreactivity for sst1, sst2B and sst4 was present in STAT3-containing nuclei of the paraventricular, periventricular, arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamic neurones, as well as in the retrochiasmatic and posterior hypothalamic areas. Despite the wide distribution of sst2A in the rat hypothalamus, few events of colocalization with leptin-activated STAT3 were observed in the dorsomedial nucleus and in the lateral and dorsal hypothalamic areas only. Many leptin-responsive neurones of the dorsal, lateral, periarcuate, perifornical and posterior hypothalamic areas, as well as in the ventromedial and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei, displayed sst3 immunoreactivity at their neuronal cilia. These results provide strong anatomical evidence for the direct interaction of leptin and the somatostatin systems in neuroendocrine control loops such as the energy homeostasis, growth or stress response.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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