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  • 1
    Abstract: Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P 〈 5 x 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29059683
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  • 2
    Abstract: Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer), all of European origin. We identified independent associations at P 〈 5 x 10-8 with ten variants at nine new loci. At P 〈 0.05, we replicated associations with 10 of 11 variants previously reported in ER-negative disease or BRCA1 mutation carrier GWAS and observed consistent associations with ER-negative disease for 105 susceptibility variants identified by other studies. These 125 variants explain approximately 16% of the familial risk of this breast cancer subtype. There was high genetic correlation (0.72) between risk of ER-negative breast cancer and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. These findings may lead to improved risk prediction and inform further fine-mapping and functional work to better understand the biological basis of ER-negative breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29058716
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  • 3
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  GMS Ophthalmology Cases; VOL: 7; DOC04 /20170206/
    Publication Date: 2017-12-22
    Description: Objective: To report an aggressive case of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) of the ethmoid sinus presenting as orbital cellulitisMethod: Case reportResults: A 56-year-old male presented with right eye redness, reduced vision, and periorbital swelling for 5 weeks duration associated with a two-month history of blocked nose. The visual acuity of the right eye was 6/18. The eye was proptosed with periorbital oedema and conjunctival chemosis. The pupil was mid-dilated but there was no relative afferent pupillary defect. The fundus was normal. The extraocular movements were restricted in all directions of gaze. Nasal endoscopy revealed pansinusitis that corresponded with CT scan orbit and paranasal sinuses findings. Despite treatment, he showed no clinical improvement. Ethmoidal sinus biopsies performed revealed extranodal NKTCL. Further imaging showed involvement of the right orbital contents and its adnexa with intracranial extension into the right cavernous sinus and meninges over right temporal fossa. The patient underwent chemotherapy. However he succumbed to his illness two months after the diagnosis.Conclusion: Extranodal NKTCL is a great mimicker. This case demonstrated how an acute initial presentation of extranodal NKTCL can present as orbital cellulitis with pansinusitis.
    Keywords: extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma ; orbital cellulitis ; sinusitis ; ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: article
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Bone loss ; Bone mass measurements ; Osteoporosis ; Peak bone mass ; Postmenopause ; Rate of bone loss
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have addressed the relative importance of peak bone mass and subsequent rate of loss in determining postmenopausal women's bone mass in old age, by examining longitudinal measurements of radial mid-shaft bone mass on various samples of healthy white postmenopausal women. Using both the variance estimate of age-specific rates of bone loss and the population variance in bone mass, we determined that rates of loss could contribute importantly to future bone mass. However, since we found a small negative correlation between initial bone mass and rate of loss, it was necessary to estimate the effect of bone loss as the complement of the contribution of initial bone mass. We found that the influence of bone loss (relative to initial bone mass) increases as the women age, such that by about age 70, the contribution of initial bone mass and rate of loss approached equality. However, estimated rates of bone loss were not very stable over time, so it was difficult to identify long-term ‘fast-losers’. We conclude that the rate of postmenopausal bone loss is an important contributor to osteoporosis at old age, but it is difficult to identify long-term fast-losers, thereby reducing the clinical value of assessments of rates of change in bone mass early in the postmenopause.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:Age – Architecture – Bone mass – Geometry – Hip – Men and women – Reproducibility
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Bone mass and structure at the proximal femur are important predictors of hip fracture. The aims of this study were to compare in a large sample of elderly men and women the precision of measurements of bone mass and structure at multiple sites at the proximal femur, to examine their interrelationships, to establish their relationships with age and body size, and to examine criteria for defining geometric and architectural variables in bone structure. Women (n= 336) and men (n= 141) over the age of 60 years were studied cross-sectionally. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) at the proximal femur were measured in duplicate by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Shaft and total upper femur (hip) sites in addition to femoral neck, Ward's triangle and trochanter were measured. Structural variables, measured from radiographs and from DXA images, including cortical thickness at calcar femorale, lateral cortex and mid-femur, width of the femur and medulla, Singh grade, hip and femoral axis length, femoral head and neck width and the center of mass of the femoral neck. BMD and BMC had high reproducibility and there were significant differences in reproducibility across sites. Among sites, total upper femur and shaft had the highest reproducibility. Duplicate measurements substantially improved reliability of the measurement and are recommended when the value is close to a diagnostic level or when it will be used to establish rates of change. Reproducibility of structural variables was also high except for the lateral cortex, center of mass and Singh grade. Variance due to measurement error did not change with either age or gender. Women were significantly different from men, after controlling for differences in body size, in all variables except Singh grade and medulla width. BMD and BMC were negatively related to age and positively to body size. Structural variables examined in relation to age and body size fell into two categories. The first comprised variables that were not age-related but were body-size-related, suggesting that they could be classified as geometric variables. The second comprised variables that were both body-size-related and age-related, suggesting that they could be classified as architectural variables. Using these criteria, calcar and lateral cortex were architectural variables, whereas shaft width, hip and femoral axis length, femoral head and neck width, and center of mass were geometric in both men and women. In women, shaft cortex width and medulla width were age-related, whereas in men they were not. Singh grade showed no consistent pattern with age or body size in women and men.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Bone density ; Femor geometry ; Genetics ; Twins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To estimate genetic effects on femoral neck geometry and the distribution of bone mineral within the proximal femur a cross-sectional twin analysis was carried out at a university hospital that compared correlations in these traits in pairs of mono- and dizygo-tic female twins. Monozygotic (MZ, n=51 pairs, age 49.1±9.3 years) and dizygotic (DZ, n=26 pairs, age 45.7±11.3 years) twins were randomly selected from a larger sample of twins previously studied. Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD), femoral neck angles and length, cross-sectional area and moment of interia, the center of mass of the narrowest cross-section of the femoral neck, and BMDs of regions within the femoral neck were made. A summary index of the resistance of the femoral neck to forces experienced in a fall with impact on the greater trochanter (Fall Index, FI) was calculated. MZ pair intraclass correlations (rMZ) were significantly (p〈0.05) different from zero for all bone mass and femoral geometry variables (0.35〈rMZ〈0.82). DZ pair correlations (rDZ) were lower thanrMZ for all variables (0.04〈rDZ〈0.52) except femoral neck length (rDZ=0.38, rMZ=0.36). After adjustment for BMD of the femoral neck,rMZ was significantly greater thanrDZ, yielding high heritability estimates for regional BMDs (0.72〈H 2〈0.78), the center of mass of the femoral neck (H 2=0.70, −0.04 to 1.43 95% CI) and the resistance of the femoral neck to forces experienced in a fall (FI,H 2=0.94, 0.06 to 1.85 95% CI), but not for femoral neck length. Adjustments for age did not alter these findings. It is concluded that there are significant familial influences on the distribution of femoral bone mass and on the calculated structural strength of the proximal femur, but not on femoral neck length. If the assumptions of the twin model are correct, this is evidence for genetic factors influencing these traits.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Ondansetron ; 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptors ; cold-restraint stress ; mucosal ulcers ; mast cells ; rat stomachs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Ondansetron (0.08, 0.15 or 0.3 mg/kg) injected s.c., every 12h with the fourth dose given 0.5 h before experiments, dose-dependently lessened gastric glandular mucosal ulceration produced by cold-restraint stress for 2h. When given intracerebrally (i.c.) (0.1, 0.5 or 1μg), using the same treatment regimen, infusion of ondansetron 1 μg into the nucleus amygdaloideus centralis decreased stress-evoked ulcers; in contrast, injection of the same dose into the nucleus accumbens intensified these lesions. The associated stress-induced stomach wall mast cell degranulation was unaffected by all s.c. or i.c. doses of ondansetron. Pretreatment with disodium cromoglycate i.p. alone, or concurrently with ondansetron s.c., prevented not only ulceration but also mast cell degranulation. 5-Hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonism appears to inhibit stress-evoked ulcers mainly by blocking the peripheral effects of the amine after its release from the gastric mucosal mast cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Prazosin ; tolerance ; blood pressure ; rats ; rabbits
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Prazosin was injected i.v. at a dose of 50 μg/kg every 2 h for 8 h in conscious rats. Its hypotensive action significantly declined. A similar effect was also observed in rabbits pretreated with prazosin (40 μg/kg, i.v.) every 1 h for 4 h. In prazosin-treated rabbits, the total peripheral resistance became less responsive to phentolamine stimulation. Repeated prazosin administration abolished its ability to block receptors in a model of anococcygue muscle contraction after noradrenaline (NA) stimulation. The α-adrenoceptors in anococcygue muscle exhibited lower pD2 to NA and lower pA2 to prazosin in prazosin-treated rats. The results demonstrate that repeated prazosin administration reduces the effectiveness of α-adrenoceptors blockers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The mechanisms underlying potentiation by captopril of the depressor responses to arachidonic acid were studied in chloralose-anaesthetized rats.2. Captopril, in a dose (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.) which inhibited the pressor responses to angiotensin I (0.03-1 μg/kg, i.v.), enhanced the depressor responses to bradykinin (3-300 μg/kg, i.v.) and potentiated the hypotensive action of arachidonic acid (3 mg/kg, intravenously). This phenomenon was observed not only when captopril and arachidonic acid were administered intravenously, but also when these compounds were injected directly into the aortic arch.3. The enhancement of arachidonic acid-induced hypotension by captopril was not significantly affected by pretreatment with a low dose of aprotinin (3 mg/kg, i.v.), but was abolished by bilateral nephrectomy or by pretreatment with a higher dose of aprotinin (6 mg/kg, i.v.).4. It is suggested that captopril augments the depressor responses to arachidonic acid by inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme. This results in accumulation of bradykinin which in turn increases release of vasodilator prostaglandins, originating most probably, from the kidneys. The possibility that blockade of angiotensin II formation by captopril may leave the vasodilator action of prostaglandin unopposed cannot be excluded.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. In chloralose anaesthetized rats, intravenous administration of captopril, SQ 20881, SA 446 or MK 421 (0.5 mg/kg) potentiated the depressor responses to arachidonic acid 3 mg/kg given intravenously.2. Same doses of the above angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors caused an approximately 100-fold decrease in sensitivity to the pressor effects of angiotensin I, with a concomitant similar increase in sensitivity to the depressor effects of bradykinin.3. Depressor responses to arachidonic acid, both before and after administering the converting enzyme inhibitors, were abolished by intravenous indomethacin (5 mg/kg).4. These results suggest that increased synthesis of prostaglandins in the circulation may contribute to the hypotensive effect of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, a group of newly developed antihypertensive agents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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