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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; DIAGNOSIS ; INFORMATION ; DEATH ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; microarray ; TUMORS ; validation ; DNA ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; ASSAY ; microarrays ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; meta-analysis ; SNP ; risk factors ; mass spectrometry ; SPECTROMETRY ; RISK FACTOR ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; overall survival ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTOR ; METAANALYSIS ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; GENOTYPE ; cancer survival ; INTERNATIONAL CASE-CONTROL ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; GENETIC-VARIATION ; REPAIR GENES ; TUMOR CHARACTERISTICS ; COMMON POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide ; journals ; COX REGRESSION ; ALL-CAUSE ; BRCA1 MUTATIONS
    Abstract: Traditional prognostic factors for survival and treatment response of patients with breast cancer do not fully account for observed survival variation. We used available genotype data from a previously conducted two-stage, breast cancer susceptibility genome-wide association study (ie, Studies of Epidemiology and Risk factors in Cancer Heredity [SEARCH]) to investigate associations between variation in germline DNA and overall survival. We evaluated possible associations between overall survival after a breast cancer diagnosis and 10 621 germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from up to 3761 patients with invasive breast cancer (including 647 deaths and 26 978 person-years at risk) that were genotyped previously in the SEARCH study with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays (ie, hypothesis-generating set). Associations with all-cause mortality were assessed for each SNP by use of Cox regression analysis, generating a per rare allele hazard ratio (HR). To validate putative associations, we used patient genotype information that had been obtained with 5' nuclease assay or mass spectrometry and overall survival information for up to 14 096 patients with invasive breast cancer (including 2303 deaths and 70 019 person-years at risk) from 15 international case-control studies (ie, validation set). Fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to generate an overall effect estimate in the validation dataset and in combined SEARCH and validation datasets. All statistical tests were two-sided. In the hypothesis-generating dataset, SNP rs4778137 (C 〉 G) of the OCA2 gene at 15q13.1 was statistically significantly associated with overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors, with the rare G allele being associated with increased overall survival (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41 to 0.75, P = 9.2 x 10(-5)). This association was also observed in the validation dataset (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.99, P = .03) and in the combined dataset (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.92, P = 5 x 10(-4)). The rare G allele of the OCA2 polymorphism, rs4778137, may be associated with improved overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20308648
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; POLYMORPHISMS ; BRCA1 ; GLUCOSE ; MUTATION CARRIERS ; METAANALYSIS ; ALLELES ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; 6Q25.1
    Abstract: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium(BCAC) we sought to determine if risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r(2)=0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46,036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46,930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25,458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per allele- odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95%CI=1.10 to 1.16, and for ER-negative tumors OR was 1.03, 95%CI=0.98 to 1.07, case only P-heterogeneity = 7.6x10(-5)]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P=6.7 x10(-3)) and lobular histology (case-only P =0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21852249
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cytogenetic findings on a family with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) in which three of four sibs were affected are described. The affected individuals had approximately twice the level of spontaneous chromosome breakage of a normla control, while the parents and the normal sib had no significant increase. Lymphocytes from all three A-T homozygotes showed specific stable chromosomal rearrangements involving chromosomes 7 and 14. All of these abnormalities involved breakage at the usual four sites associated with A-T (7p14, 7q35, 14q12, and 14q32). Two rearrangements detected in the eldest and most severely affected patient were clones, one of which [t(14;14)(p11;q12)] is not commonly found in A-T cells. No chromosomal rearrangements were encountered in lymphocytes from the control, the parents, or the normal sib. Lymphocytes from the A-T patients also were found to be 7–11 times more sensitive to the induction of chromatid aberrations by X-irradiation than control cells. Lymphocytes from the parents and normal sib showed a moderately increased frequency of X-ray induced aberrations compared with that of the control.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Lolium ; interspecific hybrids ; backcrossing ; genetic segregation ; introgression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Triploid hybrids of Lolium multiflorum (4x) x L. perenne (2x) behaved cytologically as autotriploids but the segregation of isozyme variants did not always agree with the expected trisomic ratios. The overall effect of these deviations from expectation was a greater proportion than expected of diploid progeny from the cross L. multiflorum (2x) x triploid hybrid which did not include any of the L. perenne alleles at the three marker isozyme loci. The possible mechanisms for these aberrant segregation ratios are discussed together with the advantages of the crossing scheme to accelerate the recovery of the genotype of the recurrent parent in a backcrossing programme to transfer characters from one species to another.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Lolium perenne ; Primary trisomics ; Isozymes ; Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase ; Phosphoglucoisomerase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Primary trisomics were used to locate the structural loci coding for particular forms of the dimeric enzymes phosphoglucoisomerase and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase in Lolium perenne. The polymorphy of these loci enabled triallelic trisomics to be produced. Each locus could thus be directly assigned to a particular chromosome without the need to examine segregant progeny. The loci for GOT/3 and PGI/2 were found to be located on chromosomes 2 and 6 respectively.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Lolium ; Festuca ; Genomic in situ hybridization ; Gene introgression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to identify Festuca chromatin in mitotic chromosomes of Lolium multiflorum (Lm) × Festuca pratensis (Fp) hybrids and hybrid derivatives. In two inverse autoallotriploids LmLmFp and LmFpFp, in situ hybridization was able to discriminate between the Lolium and Festuca chromosomes. In a third triploid hybrid produced by crossing an amphiploid of L. multiflorum × F. pratensis (2n=4x=28) with L. multiflorum (2n=2x=14), the technique identified chromosomes with interspecific recombination. Also, in an introgressed line of L. multiflorum which was homozygous for the recessive sid (senescence induced degradation) allele from F. pratensis, a pair of chromosome segments carrying the sid gene could be identified, indicating the suitability of GISH in showing the presence and location of introgressed genes. By screening backcross progeny for the presence of critical alien segments and the absence of other segments the reconstitution of the genome of the recipient species can be accelerated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Festuca ; Lolium ; Recombination ; GISH ; ChromosomeRID=""ID="" Communicated by J. W. SnapeRID=""ID="" 〈E5〉Correspondence to〈/E5〉 P. H. Canter
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The synthetic amphiploid cv Prior was created in the early 1970s at the Welsh Plant Breeding Station by crossing colchicine-induced autotetraploids of Lolium perenne (2n=14) and Festuca pratensis (2n=14). Meiosis in the early generations was characterized as stable, with frequent bivalent formation. In situ hybridization of a L. perenne total genomic DNA probe to mitotic chromosome spreads of 12 plants, from two extant populations of Prior, demonstrates extensive recombination between the two genomes. Recombination events occur along the whole length of chromosome arms but with a higher frequency in the medial portion. The species origins of chromosomes were assigned by the presence or absence of a fluorescent probe at the centromere. There has been a substitution of Festuca-origin chromosomes by those of Lolium-origin, resulting in a mean of 17.9 (15–21) Lolium and 9.7 (7–13) Festuca chromosomes per genotype. Mean chromatin length per genotype comprised 62.1% Lolium and 37.9% Festuca. On average 9.3 Lolium (51.1% of those present) and 3.5 Festuca (37.8%) chromosomes had no recombined segments. For chromosomes which did show recombination, fewer alien segments were observed in Lolium than in Festuca chromosomes. Festuca chromosomes in genotypes selected for drought resistance had undergone more recombination than in genotypes from an unselected population, though this difference was not statistically significant for the small sample examined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chromosoma 65 (1978), S. 301-307 
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Chromosome number in Hordeum vulgare x H. bulbosum hybrids ranged between the haploid and diploid number but with peaks in frequency occurring at the 14 and 7 chromosome level. This was reflected in a gradual change from hybrid morphology to that of haploid H. vulgare. The rate of chromosome elimination differed significantly between hybrids, while within each hybrid, differences in mean chromosome number were recorded between and within individual tillers. An increase in temperature from 25–30° C caused a significant increase in the rate of elimination of H. bulbosum chromosomes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Lolium ; Festuca ; Inter-SSR fingerprinting ; DNA markers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) comprising three tetranucleotide repeat sequences with two-base ’anchors’, namely 5´-(AGAC)4GC, 5´-AC(GACA)4 and 5´-(GACA)4GT, were used in PCR reactions as primers to develop inter-SSR DNA fingerprints of the outbreeding grass species Lolium multiflorum, L. perenne, Festuca pratensis and F. arundinacea. Each species was represented by DNA samples from 3 to 6 varieties. In all four species distinctive species-specific DNA profiles were produced that were common across a number of varieties despite their diverse origin. While the fingerprints of the two ryegrasses, L. multiflorum and L. perenne, were the most similar, a number of inter-SSR DNA markers were generated that enabled them to be distinguished from each other. Some slight variations were found between varieties, which provided putative variety-specific markers for cultivar identification. In addition, variations in the DNA profiles of the genotypes of L. multiflorum and F. pratensis were examined, and the results showed that variety-specific fingerprints are integrated patterns made up from the profiles of individual genotypes. Amongst the primers used, AC(GACA)4 generated the best distinction between Lolium and Festuca individuals and provides an effective new tool for genome identification. A number of species-discriminating sequences, ranging in size between 550 bp and 1,600 bp, were cloned: three clones for F. pratensis, one clone for L. multiflorum and one clone for F. arundinacea. A F. pratensis fragment pFp 78H582 was sequenced. Southern hybridization confirmed the presence of this fragment in F. arundinacea (which contains one genome of F. pratensis), but no homology was found with L. multiflorum. However, a F. arundinacea clone amplified with (GACA)4GT, pFa 104H1350, was found to be unique to the F. arundinacea genome.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1530-0358
    Keywords: Coloanal anstomosis ; Colonic J-pouch ; Neorectum ; Anorectal physiology ; Carcinoma of rectum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether a colonic J-pouch has similar properties to that of a normal rectum, including recovery of rectoanal coordination. METHODS: Ten patients with colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis (anastomotic distance from anal verge, 3–5 (range, 2.0–4.5) cm for low rectal cancer (7 men; mean age, 64.7 (range, 44–76) years) were studied clinically and in the anorectal physiology laboratory at least one year after operation. Results were compared with a series of ten matched patients who underwent high anterior resection for upper rectal carcinoma (anastomotic height, 12.7 (range, 9.5–16) cm). RESULTS: Although results seemed to be slightly better in the group with the rectum preserved, no statistical differences could be found either in functional outcome or anorectal physiology. One-half of the patients with colonic J-pouch (neorectum) had a positive rectoanal inhibitory reflex. CONCLUSION: Addition of a colon pouch neorectum would appear to improve function to the level of those patients with a high anastomosis and “normal” rectum.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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