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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-03-16
    Description: A core feature of protective T cell responses to infection is the robust expansion and diversification of naive antigen-specific T cell populations into short-lived effector and long-lived memory subsets. By means of in vivo fate mapping, we found a striking variability of immune responses derived from individual CD8(+) T cells and show that robust acute and recall immunity requires the initial recruitment of multiple precursors. Unbiased mathematical modeling identifies the random integration of multiple differentiation and division events as the driving force behind this variability. Within this probabilistic framework, cell fate is specified along a linear developmental path that progresses from slowly proliferating long-lived to rapidly expanding short-lived subsets. These data provide insights into how complex biological systems implement stochastic processes to guarantee robust outcomes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Buchholz, Veit R -- Flossdorf, Michael -- Hensel, Inge -- Kretschmer, Lorenz -- Weissbrich, Bianca -- Graf, Patricia -- Verschoor, Admar -- Schiemann, Matthias -- Hofer, Thomas -- Busch, Dirk H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 3;340(6132):630-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1235454. Epub 2013 Mar 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich 81675, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23493420" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adoptive Transfer ; Animals ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Lineage ; Cell Proliferation ; Clonal Selection, Antigen-Mediated ; Computer Simulation ; *Immunity, Cellular ; *Immunologic Memory ; Immunophenotyping ; Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis ; Interleukin-2/biosynthesis ; Listeria monocytogenes ; Listeriosis/*immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Transgenic ; Models, Immunological ; Single-Cell Analysis ; Stochastic Processes ; T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity ; T-Lymphocyte Subsets/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Keywords: DIFFERENTIATION ; CUTTING EDGE ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; MEMORY ; SUBSETS ; EFFECTOR ; PRECURSOR ; EXPANSION ; STEM ; DIVISION
    Abstract: A core feature of protective T cell responses to infection is the robust expansion and diversification of naive antigen-specific T cell populations into short-lived effector and long-lived memory subsets. By means of in vivo fate mapping, we found a striking variability of immune responses derived from individual CD8(+) T cells and show that robust acute and recall immunity requires the initial recruitment of multiple precursors. Unbiased mathematical modeling identifies the random integration of multiple differentiation and division events as the driving force behind this variability. Within this probabilistic framework, cell fate is specified along a linear developmental path that progresses from slowly proliferating long-lived to rapidly expanding short-lived subsets. These data provide insights into how complex biological systems implement stochastic processes to guarantee robust outcomes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23493420
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Two flowmeters for continious measurement of coronary sinus and right renal vein outflow in dogs with closed chest and abdomen are described. Both flowmeters are based on the pitot-tube-principle. After discussing the fundamentals of hydrodynamics, details are given about construction and procedure of working. The calibration with liquids of different viscosity (0,95–4,5 cP) in constant and pulsatory flow with different frequencies and stroke volumes gave the following results: 1. Blood flow in physiological hematocrit ranges can be measured exactly from 20\2-950 cc/min by both flowmeters. Thesinuscatheter permits an accurate measurement even in a high degree of anemia (20% hematocrit). Up to a flow of 500 cc/min the renal vein catheter works accordingly. When the flow exceeds 500 cc/min by low viscosity a systematic error appears, the measurement will become too low, e.g. at 700 cc/min max. 10%. 2. Variation of frequency (10\2-200/min) and stroke volume (2,6\2-24 cc) by pulsatory flow and medium viscosity does not influence the measurement. 3. Phasic flow can be recorded without deformation. 4. The small increase of resistance caused by the flowmeters does not lead to congestion in heart and kidney.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es werden zwei nach demPitot-Rohr Prinzip arbeitende Katheter zur fortlaufenden Messung des Ausflusses aus dem Sinus coronarius und der rechten Nierenvene bei geschlossenem Thorax bzw. Abdomen beschrieben. Nach Darstellung der Grundlagen aus der Strömungslehre und der Theorie des Meßprinzips erfolgen Angaben über den Aufbau der Katheter und die Arbeitsweise und Handhabung der einem Druckdifferenzrezeptor nachgeschalteten Verstärker- und Radizieranlage. Die Prüfung der Meßgenauigkeit beider Katheter mit Blutersatzmitteln verschiedener Viskosität (0,95–4,5 cP) bei stationärer und pulsierender Strömung verschiedener Frequenzen und Schlagvolumina erbrachte folgendes Ergebnis: 1. Bei Hämatokritwerten in physiologischen Grenzen läßt sich das Stromzeitvolumen mit beiden Kathetermeßköpfen von 20–950 ml/min genau bestimmen. Dieser Meßbereich wird für denSinuskatheter auch in schwerer Anämie (20% Hämatokrit) nicht eingeschränkt. Für denNierenvenenkatheter gilt das gleiche bis zu einem Fluß von etwa 500 ml/min, darüber entsteht bei sehr kleiner Viskosität ein systematischer Fehler im Sinne zu kleiner Durchflußanzeige. Bei 700 ml/min kann dieses Defizit maximal 10% erreichen. 2. Änderung der Frequenz von 10–200 n/min und des Schlagvolumens von 2,6–24 ml bei einer pulsierenden Strömung erzeugt bei einer mittleren Viskosität keinen erkennbaren Störeffekt. 3. Der Phasenfluß einer Pulsation wird für den in Frage kommenden Frequenz- und Amplitudenbereich hinreichend verzerrungsfrei wiedergegeben. 4. Die durch die beiden Kathetermeßköpfe induzierte Widerstandserhöhung im Sinus coronarius und in der Nierenvene ist auch bei hohen Stromstärken für die betroffenen Organe ohne störenden Einfluß.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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