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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-06-06
    Description: Skinner and colleagues (Research Article, 23 January 2015, p. 395), based on metacarpal trabecular bone structure, argue that Australopithecus africanus employed human-like dexterity for stone tool making and use 3 million years ago. However, their evolutionary and biological assumptions are misinformed, failing to refute the previously existing hypothesis that human-like manipulation preceded systematized stone tool manufacture, as indicated by the fossil record.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Almecija, Sergio -- Wallace, Ian J -- Judex, Stefan -- Alba, David M -- Moya-Sola, Salvador -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jun 5;348(6239):1101. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa8414.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology, Department of Anthropology, The George Washington University, Science and Engineering Hall, 800 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA. Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain. sergio.almecija@gmail.com. ; Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. ; Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain. ; ICREA at Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont and Unitat d'Antropologia Biologica (Departament BABVE), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-CP, Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26045428" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Humans ; Metacarpal Bones/*anatomy & histology ; Metacarpus/*anatomy & histology ; Thumb/*anatomy & histology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Despite substantial recent interest in walking barefoot and in minimal footwear, little is known about potential differences in walking biomechanics when unshod versus minimally shod. To test the hypothesis that heel impact forces are similar during barefoot and minimally shod walking, we analysed ground reaction forces recorded in both conditions with a pedography platform among indigenous subsistence farmers, the Tarahumara of Mexico, who habitually wear minimal sandals, as well as among urban Americans wearing commercially available minimal sandals. Among both the Tarahumara ( n = 35) and Americans ( n = 30), impact peaks generated in sandals had significantly ( p 〈 0.05) higher force magnitudes, slower loading rates and larger vertical impulses than during barefoot walking. These kinetic differences were partly due to individuals' significantly greater effective mass when walking in sandals. Our results indicate that, in general, people tread more lightly when walking barefoot than in minimal footwear. Further research is needed to test if the variations in impact peaks generated by walking barefoot or in minimal shoes have consequences for musculoskeletal health.
    Keywords: biomechanics
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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