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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Resumé Une étude comparative randomisée a été effectuée sur deux dispositifs contraceptifs intrautérins: le Nova-T et le MLCu375. Ces stérilets ont été utilisés respectivement par 1116 et 1237 femmes sur une période de deux ans. On a analysé après un an et après duex ans, par la méthode des tables de survie, les raisons pour lesquelles ces DIU avaient été abandonnés. Des différences significatives du point de vue statistique ont été constatées dans les taux de grossesse, d'expulsion et de retrait pour cause de saignement et/ou de douleurs, et ces différences étaient favorables au dispositif MLCu375.
    Abstract: Resumen Se hizo una prueba comparativa al azar de dos dispositivos anticonceptivos intrauterinos: el Nova-T y el MLCu375. Los DIU fueron usados por 1116 y 1237 mujeres respectivamente, durante un período de 2 años. Las razones para quitar un DIU fueron analizadas después de uno y dos años de uso empleando el método de tabla de vida. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas en las tasas de embarazo, expulsión y remoción por sangrado y/o dolor, siendo favorables para el MLCu375.
    Notes: Abstract A comparative randomized trial was carried out on two intrauterine contraceptive devices: the Nova-T and the MLCu375. The IUDs were used by 1116 and 1237 women respectively, over a period of 2 years. The reasons for IUD removal were analyzed after one and two years using the life-table method. Statistically significant differences were found in the rates for pregnancy, expulsion and removal for bleeding and/or pain favoring the MLCu375 IUD.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We used ELISA and immunoblotting to investigate antigenic cross-reactivity in mice between third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex and five other nematodes: the ascaridoids Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis and Hysterothylacium aduncum, and the nonascaridoids Trichinella spiralis and Trichuris muris. Two sera were raised against each species (including A. simplex, but excluding A. suum), by infection or by immunization with somatic antigens. Serum against A. suum was raised by immunization only. The reactivities of each serum with A. simplex somatic antigens (SA), excretion-secretion antigens (ES), pseudocoelomic fluid antigens (PF) and cuticular antigens (CA) were investigated. The results of ELISA indicated high antigenic cross-reactivity between A. simplex and the remaining ascaridoid nematodes, confirming that there is extensive antigenic similarity within this group of nematode parasites. Immunoblotting again confirmed the high degree of cross-reactivity between the SA of A. simplex and SAs of the other ascaridoids, although several A. simplex SA components in the 11–18 kDA range were only recognized by sera from mice infected with A. simplex. In addition, two A. simplex PF components of 22 and 27 kDA, were recognized only by sera from mice infected with, or immunized with the SA of, A. simplex. Finally, the anti-phosphorylcholine monoclonal antibody BH8 recognized only a small number of A. simplex antigens, indicating that phosphorylcholine epitopes are not significant contributors to the observed cross-reactivity with the other nematodes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We analyzed the antigenicity of biotinyl enzymes contained in somatic extracts from Anisakis simplex and other parasite nematodes and show in this report that these molecules are an important source of cross-reactivity problems among these nematodes. Cross-reactivity was most pronounced among members of the superfamily Ascaridoidea. These results suggest that the presence of biotinyl enzymes in whole somatic extracts of A. simplex and other parasites may make serodiagnostic assays based on this kind of antigenic preparation unreliable.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5192
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Pleistophora finisterrensis n. sp. is a microsporidian parasite of the hypoaxial musculature of the blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou (Risso). Foci of infection are between 3 and 6 mm in length and have no evident effects on adjacent muscle fibres. We found only a single type of spore (uninucleate, with mean dimensions of 4×2 µm in fresh preparations), contained within sporophorous vesicles (mean diameter 19 µm in fresh preparations; 150–250 spores per vesicle). All of the development stages of this microsporidian are monokaryotic. The meronts are initially uninucleate and bounded by a plasmalemma. Towards the end of merogony, meronts are multinucleate plasmodia with a well-defined surface coat. Sporogony is polysporous, with multinucleate sporonts, which likewise have a well-defined surface coat (about 130 nm thick), dividing by plasmotomy to give rise to uninucleate sporoblasts. The polar tube is isofilar and consists of 8–9 turns in the posterior half of spore. The polaroplast is made up of an anterior lamellar part and a posterior vesicular part.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 80 (2002), S. 1246-1248 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Using the applied field angle dependence of the approach to saturation of the magnetization, a theory for the determination of the distribution of easy axes of anisotropy and the ratio between interaction and anisotropy in bidimensional nanomagnetic materials is proposed. The usual saturation process laws in two dimensions at high and intermediate field ranges are recovered and other dependencies between the former are found and justified in terms of scaling arguments. Finally, an approximate analytical model that provides a simpler method by which to determine the easy axis distribution and interaction strength is discussed. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 73 (1998), S. 2503-2505 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A general method applicable to interacting fine-particle systems in the mean-field approximation is developed. When the external applied field is decreased, interaction and disorder give rise to a rotation of the integration domain that must be considered for the determination of the average values. This model provides useful expressions for obtaining the magnetic easy axis distribution, and reproducing the results of the preceding noninteracting theories when interaction between particles is not taken into account. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 67 (1995), S. 2881-2883 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In contrast to preceding methods valid only for noninteracting many-particle assemblies, we describe a theory applicable to two-dimensional recording media, which includes interactions between particles through a mean-field model. Expressions are obtained for the angular dependence of magnetic remanences parallel and perpendicular to the applied field. We define a quantity independent of interaction, the remanent magnetization direction, which provides a realistic distribution of easy axes. From this distribution, plus saturation squareness measurements, the interaction strength may be estimated. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Five monoclonal antibodies (UA2, UA3, UA5, UA6, and UA8) specific for Anisakis simplex are described. All are IgG1/κ monoclonal antibodies, except for UA2, which is an antibody IgM/κ. The molecular weights of the major components recognized in immunoblotting are 48 and 67 kDa (UA2); 139 kDa (UA3 and UA5; same epitope); 35, 38, and 139 kDa (UA6); and 205 kDa (UA8). UA2 was the only monoclonal antibody to recognize both components of an excretion-secretion antigen preparation and antigens in the excretory cell and esophageal glands of third-stage A.␣simplex larvae; antigens in the excretory cell were also recognized by UA3 and UA6. Cross-reactivity studies using a hyperimmune polyclonal rabbit serum reacting with various ascaridoid nematodes indicated that the antigens captured by our monoclonal antibodies were specific for A. simplex. Finally, comparative studies of our monoclonal antibodies and An2 (the only monoclonal antibody currently available for serodiagnosis of human anisakiasis), based on the calculation of multiples of normal activity for human anisakiasis sera, indicated that our monoclonal antibodies (and particularly UA3) recognized antigens that are good candidates for serodiagnostic purposes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This work investigated the location on the parasite ofTrichinella antigens recognized by the mouse immune system and the question as to which of them bear the epitope phosphorylcholine (PC). Wheatley's trichrome stain (initially developed for faecal smears) proved to be excellent for visualization ofTrichinella structures, enabling four types of stichocyte to be distinguished. By applying this stain on infected muscle sections after immunocytochemistry using (a) anti-PC BH8 monoclonal antibodies, (b) serum from mice that had been infected twice in the presence of 0.05% thiabendazole (to prevent reproduction by adult females) and then bled on day 7 post-reinfection, (c) serum from infected mice that were bled on day 14 postinfection, or (d) serum from infected mice that were bled on day 42 postinfection, we found (1) that PC is an abundant structural epitope on the hypodermis/muscle, genital primordium and intestinal tract but is absent from the cuticle and stichosome; (2) that the principle secretory cells of adult worms are delta- and beta-stichocytes, whereas those of migrating and encysted L1 larvae are alpha-stichocytes; and (3) thatTrichinella antigens recognized in the encysted phase of the parasite's life cycle are present in parasitized myofibres in the sarcoplasmic matrix and in the nucleoplasm of hypertrophic nuclei. The significance of these findings is discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The avidin-biotin molecular recognition system is widely used in parasite immunology. However, the presence of biotin and/or biotin-containing molecules (BCMs) in samples may lead to erroneous results. In the work reported herein we investigated the extent to which biotin and BCMs present in helminth extracts may interfere in avidin/biotin-based immunoassays and developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantification of these components. In avidin-based ELISA using antinematode monoclonal antibodies, an extract of the nematode Anisakis simplex showed very high background reactivity due to biotin/BCMs, whereas the background reactivity in an extract of the nematode Trichinella spiralis was negligible. To investigate interspecies differences further, we performed Western-blot analyses (with avidin as the detector) of extracts from seven nematodes (A. simplex, Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis, Hysterothylacium aduncum, T. spiralis, and Trichuris muris) and the cestode Bothriocephalus scorpii. Even within superfamilies there was considerable variation in the banding patterns obtained. The above-mentioned results confirm that biotin and BCMs may be a significant source of interference in ELISA and immunoblotting, two of the techniques most widely used in parasitological immunodiagnosis. A competition ELISA designed to allow accurate quantification of biotin and BCMs in helminth extracts likewise indicated very considerable interspecies variation. Both A. simplex and H. aduncum had very high biotin/BCM contents. Microdialysis of extracts in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide to remove free biotin prior to ELISA indicated that the high biotin/BCM content of the H. aduncum extract (but not the A. simplex extract) was very largely due to free biotin. Taken together, these results indicate that extreme caution should be exercised in the use of avidin/biotin-based immunoassays for the detection of helminth antigens and that in many cases it may be better to use an alternative recognition system.
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