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  • 1
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The neuronal circuitry through which prolonged excitation is generated in the spinal dorsal horn was investigated using optical imaging of neuronal excitation in transverse slices of rat spinal cords. It is known that tetanic stimulation (20 Hz for 1 s) of the dorsal root that activates both A and C primary afferent fibres elicits slow intrinsic optical signals (IOS) in the dorsal horn, seen most intensely in the substantia gelatinosa (SG), lamina II, and that IOS expresses in part the slow synaptic response recorded intracellularly in dorsal horn neurons. We here report that the slow IOS within the SG were completely abolished after an incision was made at the border between the SG and the deeper laminae, but not after an incision within the deeper dorsal horn of the laminae III–V. The result demonstrates directly that, in order to generate prolonged excitation in the SG, the neuronal elements in the deeper dorsal horn must be intact. Thus, the afferent information might be received first by the deeper elements and then transmitted to the SG region, and/or collaboration between the SG and deeper elements is necessary to maintain prolonged excitation in the SG.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The action of the volatile anaesthetic halothane on optically recorded neuronal excitation in juvenile rat spinal cord slices was investigated. Prolonged neuronal excitation lasting ≈ 100 ms was evoked in the superficial dorsal horn after single-pulse dorsal root stimulation that activated both A- and C-fibres. Halothane depressed the neuronal excitation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 0.21 mm, Imax 28%). In Ca2+-free solution, dorsal root stimulation induced excitation with a short duration of several tens of milliseconds, in which the excitation of the postsynaptic component was largely eliminated. Under these conditions, halothane also depressed the excitation concentration-dependently (IC50 0.46 mm, Imax 60%). Most of the suppression occurred within 5 min of halothane application, and the effect of halothane was fully reversible upon washout of the anaesthetic. Application of bicuculline and strychnine or picrotoxin, or reduction of extracellular Cl– concentration ([Cl–]o), had no effect on halothane inhibition. Applications of K+ channel blockers tetraethyl ammonium, 4-aminopyridine, Cs+ or Ba2+ either had no effect or augmented the inhibitory effect of halothane. On the other hand, the degree of inhibition by halothane was found to be dependent on [K+]o; the higher [K+]o, the larger the depression. In addition, decreases in [Na+]o and [Mg2+]o reduced the excitation similar to that of halothane treatment, and the degree of halothane inhibition became larger with lower [Mg2+]o. These results lead to a hypothesis that halothane suppresses the excitation of presynaptic elements by inhibiting presynaptic Na+ channels by shifting the steady-state inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Key words Phocomelia ; Cyclophosphamide ; Apoptosis ; Mouse fetus ; Limb buds
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Phocomelia (absence of upper fore and/or hind limbs) was induced in mouse fetuses using cyclophosphamide. On day 11 of gestation, pregnant mice were injected intraperitoneally with 10 ml/kg of saline containing cyclophosphamide (CP) at a dosage of 20 mg/kg body weight. On day 18, the fetuses were removed by Caesarean section from dams given CP on day 11 and were examined for external anomalies. Of 22 fetuses from CP-treated dams, 13 were dead or absorbed, but the surviving 9 fetuses were found to have phocomelia with various other external anomalies. In order to examine the direct cytotoxic effect of CP on fetal limb buds, fetuses were removed at 8, 16, 24, and 48 h after CP administration on day 11, revealing the presence of frequent pyknotic nuclei and apoptotic bodies in hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) preparations. Cell-nuclei and apoptotic bodies were frequently observed by nick end-labeling in limb buds. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the typical changes of apoptosis. DNA extracted from the fetal limb buds submitted to CP was analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis, showing the ladder pattern characteristic of internucleosomal cleavage. These findings suggest that cyclophosphamide causes apoptosis in mouse fetal limb buds and that this process induces the external anomalies of phocomelia.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] In rivers, when the boundary shear stress rb imposed by the flow exceeds the critical boundary shear stress rc required to mobilize grains on the stream bed, the bedload transport rate qb is observed to increase rapidly with small increases in rb. The simplest approximate equation for predicting qb ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0032-8332
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Population changes and home range utilization of the wild Japanese monkey at Mt. Kawaradake have been studied since 1972. Age compositions of this troop were obtained over a seven-year period. Troop size decreased from over 100 to 40 individuals as a result of a capture in 1974. The capture affected directly and indirectly the troop's range and population dynamics. The troop reduced its range size from 4.7 km2 to 2.67 km2 and changed its utilization pattern in relation to the decrease in size. After the capture, the troop used one particular area intensively, whereas the rhythmic nomadic pattern had been observed as before. This may have been caused by the decrease in the overall food requirement of the troop. The birth rate increased significantly after the capture. However, troop size did not increase because of the low recruitment rate for adult females and the high mortality of juveniles.
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  • 6
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    Springer
    Oral radiology 3 (1987), S. 11-18 
    ISSN: 1613-9674
    Keywords: Mouth floor carcinoma ; Radiotherapy ; Mandible preservation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract From 1967 through 1984 a total of 151 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth were treated by radiation therapy at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. For 136 determinate patients, 5-year local control rate of primary lesion was 72%. According to T stage, local control rate was 86% for T1 lesions, 71% for T2, 70% for T3, and 58% for T4. A majority of T1 or early T2 lesions were curable by brachytherapy alone or external irradiation combined with bleomycin or peplomycin. For advanced T2 or T3 lesions, external irradiation combined with bleomycin or peplomycin and followed by brachytherapy was applied. Surgery was reserved for relatively radioresistant tumor or for neck dissection and/or salvage of disease recurred at the primay site or in the neck. Overall five-and ten-year survival rates were 55% and 49%, respectively. According to stage, five-year survival rate was 95% for Stage I (20 patients), 55% for Stage II (48), 45% for Stage III (51), and 46% for Stage IV (32), included the results of salvage surgery.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1613-9674
    Keywords: Tongue carcinoma ; Radiotherapy ; Histological malignancy ; Neck node metastasis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A new system for the histological grading of malignancy was ultilized in 91 cases of squamous cell carcinomas of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue which were treated initially by radiotherapy at Osaka University Hospital from 1967 to 1980. Three different morphological parameters were evaluated with respect to the tumor, cell population estimated in terms of a four-point scale. A correlation was found between the degree of histological malignancy and the incidence of neck node metastasis. Furthermore, a statistical significance was valid on the survival rates between the group according to the histological grading. At present, prophylactic neck dissection is encouraged, especially for the highly malignant cases.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1613-9674
    Keywords: Interstitial radiation therapy ; Iridium-192 ; Carcinoma of the oral tongue
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Between 1973 and 1985, 286 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (T1NO: 72; T2NO: 180; T3NO: 34) were treated with Iridium-192 interstitial irradiation at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. Five-year control rates of the primary lesion by Iridium-192 implant alone or in combination with external irradiation was 70% (T1: 77%; T2: 71%; T3: 47%), and ultimate local control rate after salvage surgery only for recurrence was 85% (T1: 93%; T2: 87%; T3: 62%). These results are comparable to those obtained by interstitial therapy with radium needles, with the superior advantage of lower risk to the medical staff.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1613-9674
    Keywords: Carcinoma of the lower gingiva ; Bone destruction ; Combined radiotherapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sixty-nine patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower gingiva were treated by external radiotherapy combined with Bleomycin (BLM) or Peplomycin (PEP) at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital from 1974 to 1986. The radiographic patterns of mandibular bone destruction were grouped into 3 main types as: pressure, permeated and moth-eaten. These radiographic modes of bone destruction were reviewed in relation to the effects of the combined radiotherapy. The external irradiation of a small dose (30Gy) with simultaneous use of BLM/PEP provided good local control without surgery. The pressure and permeated types of bone destruction showed a better radioresponse than the moth-eaten type.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1613-9674
    Keywords: Radiation therapy ; Carcinoma of the tongue
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Four hundred and seventy-four patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue were treated with radiation therapy at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital between 1978 and 1987. Brachytherapy was mainly employed for the majority of the patients with T1 and T2 lesions, whereas the combination of external irradiation and brachytherapy was the treatment of choice for the patients with infiltrative T2 and more advanced lesions. Patients treated with brachytherapy alone were given an estimated tumor dose of about 70Gy within a week. Patients treated with the combined therapy received an estimated tumor dose of about 30Gy to 50Gy within 3 to 5 weeks from external irradiation, followed by 50Gy to 60Gy within a week from brachytherapy. The treatments used in this study improved the survival. The 2-year local control rates were 85% in T1, 77% in T2, 60% in T3 and 33% in T4 lesions. The 5-year actuarial survival rates according to the T stage were 78% in T1, 64% in T2, 50% in T3 and 40% in T4 lesions. One hundred and four patients(28%) of three hundred and sixty nine patients who had negative lymph nodes clinically had cervical lymph node metastases subsequently. Whereas twenty six patients(25%) of one hundred and five patients who had positive lymph nodes clinically proved to be false positive. The incidence of osteoradionecrosis was 6.0% in patients treated with the combination of external irradiation(30Gy) and brachytherapy(60Gy), while it was 1.7% in patients treated with brachtherapy alone(70Gy). Brachytherapy is a fairly good therapeutic technique for the majority of the patients with tongue cancers. The multicombined treatment modality could provide the chance for cure of advanced lesions.
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