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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In an attempt to find how much the low therapeutic effectiveness of antitumor drugs against so-called chemotherapy-refractory tumors such as colon carcinoma depends on drug sensitivity at the cellular level, sensitivity of five carcinoma cell lines (three colorectal, one pancreatic, and one renal) to nine typical anticancer agents was compared in vitro with that of four generally chemotherapysusceptible leukemia cell lines. Sensitivity was assesed in terms of the percentage cell growth in control cultures, which was determined by exposing exponentially growing cells for 48 h to the following antitumor drugs: 1-(4-amino-2-methylpyridine-5-yl)-methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), adriamycin (ADM), bleomycin (BLM), cisplatin (DDP), etoposide (VP-16), 5-fluorouracil (5FU), mitomycin C (MMC), methotrexate (MTX), and vinblastine (VLB). As expected, 10-fold or greater differences in sensitivity were scarcely ever observed between the two kinds of cell lines. Thus, we recorded a result of more (or less) sensitivity when there was a difference of 3-fold or more; and compared the drug sensitivity in every pair of carcinoma and leukemia cell lines (20 pairs for each drug). We found that carcinoma cell lines were less sensitive to VP-16, ADM, DDP, and MTX than leukemia cell lines in 18, 15, 12, and 10 of 20 pairs, respectively; only one opposite case was observed, with DDP. On the other hand, no such tendency between the two groups was observed with BLM, 5FU, or MMC. Overall, significantly different sensitivities were observed between them in 91 out of 180 pairs (i.e., 9 antitumor drugsx5 carcinomasx4 leukemias), and carcinoma cell lines were less sensitive than leukemia cell lines in 79 of these 91 pairs. These results suggest that the refractoriness of colon carcinoma, etc. to chemotherapy is, at least in part, due to low drug sensitivity of the tumor cell itself.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The responses of 14 lines of human lung cancer xenografts in BALB/c-nu/nu mice to eight known antitumor agents were investigated. These xenografts consisted of four small-cell carcinomas (SCLC) and ten non-small-cell carcinomas (four large cell, three squamous cell, and three adenocarcinomas; NSCLC). The doses used in the experiments were the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in nude mice and the “rational dose” (RD), the latter considered to be pharmacokinetically equivalent to the clinical dose. When given at MTDs, all drugs except 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and methotrexate (MTX) were extremely effective against NSCLC as well as SCLC. The response rates of drug-sensitive SCLC to mitomycin C (MMC), ACNU, and vinblastine (VLB) were 100%, and those to Adriamycin (ADR) and vincristine (VCR) were 75%. In addition, the response rates of even drug-resistant NSCLC to MMC and VLB were 70% and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the response rates of NSCLC to RDs of the drugs were reduced to 〈40% and corresponded well to the respective clinical rates. In SCLC, a good correlation of experimental and clinical response rates was observed with four drugs [cyclophosphamide (CPM), ACNU, VLB, and 5-FU]. As a result, we emphasize that a more reasonable prediction of the clinical effectiveness of antitumor agents can be made by a protocol using clinically equivalent doses.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary KW-2149, a new mitomycin C (MMC) derivative, inhibited the growth of murine P388 leukemia in vitro at 20-fold lower concentrations than those of MMC. KW-2149 was also effective in inhibiting the growth of MMC-resistant P388 (P388/MMC) cells. To elucidate these characteristics of KW-2149, its uptake and efflux were compared with those of MMC in MMC-sensitive and-resistant P388 cells. Both MMC and KW-2149 accumulated rapidly in P388 cells after incubation at the concentration of 0.47 and 0.024 μm, respectively, which were the IC50 values at 1-h exposure. Although this concentration of KW-2149 was 20 times lower than that of MMC, its intracellular concentration was little more than that of MMC, suggesting that KW-2149 accumulated in the cells quite efficiently. The accumulated KW-2149 in the cells after 1-h treatment remained for as long as 24 h after the incubation of the cells in drug-free medium, suggesting that most of the intracellular KW-2149 or MMC was bound to cellular components. The ratios of resistance of P388/MMC cells to MMC and KW-2149 were 34 and 8.8, respectively, at 1-h exposure, suggesting that P388/MMC cells were partially resistant to KW-2149 in vitro. P388/MMC cells also showed partial resistance to cisplatin, Adriamycin,m-AMSA, and etoposide. The accumulation of MMC in P388/MMC cells was lower than that in P388 cells, although the size of the former cells was almost equal to that of the latter. As a result, the amount of DNA-bound MMC was lower in P388/MMC cells than in P388 cells, suggesting its involvement in the mechanisms of MMC resistance in P388/MMC cells.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The antitumor activity of a mitomycin derivative, 7-N-[2-[[2-(γ-glutamylamino)ethyl]dithio]ethyl]mitomycin C (KW-2149), was evaluated in murine and human tumor models, including a mitomycin C (MMC)-resistant tumor in vitro and in vivo. KW-2149 showed a profound effect against i.p. inoculated P388 leukemia on both a single and an intermittent administration schedule. Against s.c. implanted colon adenocarcinoma 38 (colon 38), KW-2149 was as effective as MMC in ILS% and in tumor growth inhibition on a single-administration schedule. Both compounds were similarly effective when an intermittent schedule was used. KW-2149 showed activity against human tumor xenografts and was effective in two of four non-small-cell lung carcinomas but was not effective against three gastric adenocarcinomas on the singleadministration regimen. The activity of KW-2149 against gastric adenocarcinoma was inferior to that of MMC on a single-administration schedule. However, the antitumor activity of KW-2149 was higher on an intermittent schedule than on a single-administration regimen. The antitumor activity of KW-2149 against human tumor xenografts was similar to that of MMC on an intermittent schedule, and the former drug was effective against both gastric adenocarcinomas and both non-small-cell lung carcinomas. KW-2149 was more effective than MMC against a subline of P388 leukemia that is resistant to MMC in vitro as well as in vivo.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Plasma concentration-time profiles of nimustine hydrochloride, 1-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl]-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), in the mouse, rat, rabbit, and dog were determined by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The pharmacokinetic parameters for these four animal species and previously reported clinical data were analyzed for investigation of interspecies correlation. Loglog plots of body weight (W; kg) vs total plasma clearance (CLtot, p; ml/min) and steady-state distribution volume (Vd, ss; 1) for the four animal species were linear, with high correlation coefficients (r 0.996 for both parameters), despite the fact that the nonrenal clearance was 〉97% in these species. Linear regression on the plots excluding human data yielded allometric equations (CLtot,p=50.6 W0.957; Bd, ss=1.29 W1.03) that were extrapolated to predict ACNU pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. For both parameters, however, there were 3-fold differences between the predicted and observed parametric values. To investigate these discrepancies, we measured serum protein binding of ACNU in these animal species and in humans. The values of CLtot,p and Vd,ss were converted into those of CLu tot,p and Vd,u ss, which correspond to the parameters for unbound ACNU. In this case, correlation coefficients of the log-log plots excluding human data (CLu tot,p=71.7 W0.891; Bd,u ss=1.82 W0.966) were also high (r≥0.991). The extrapolated values vs those observed in a 70-kg human were the following: CLu tot,p, 3,160 vs 2,290 ml/min; Vd,u ss, 110 vs 1061. Thus, the animal data were successfully extrapolated to yield better predictions of human pharmacokinetic parameters if the analysis was based on the unbound plasma concentration of ACNU. In addition, the predicted plasma concentration-time profile for humans also showed good agreement with the observed ones. These results suggest the importance of measuring unbound fractions of drugs for more accurate prediction of human pharmacokinetic parameters by extrapolation of animal data to the human situation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Key words CPT-11 ; Pharmacokinetics ; Monkey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: To examine the pharmacokinetic relationships between humans and monkeys, we studied the disposition of 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11) and its active metabolite, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), in rhesus monkeys. Methods: CPT-11 was administered to a total of six monkeys at doses of 3, 7, 15 and 25 mg/kg by intravenous infusion for 10 min and plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of CPT-11 determined. Results: Maximum plasma concentrations at 25 mg/kg reached around 10 000 ng/ml, and dropped to 500 ng/ml in 8 h. Plasma concentrations of SN-38 remained between 2 and 10 ng/ml. Mean values of systemic clearance, mean residence time and distribution volume at steady state, the major pharmacokinetic parameters for CPT-11, were 13.3 (ml/min per kg), 192 (min) and 2553 (ml/kg), respectively. The initial plasma concentration ratio of lactone to total CPT-11, 76%, declined to about 20% within 75 min, and the final ratio was about 40% at 8 h; the initial ratio of SN-38 was 72%, dropped to 34% within 70 min and finally recovered to 55% at 8 h. Conclusion: Comparison with human data revealed that systemic clearances of CPT-11 and the maximum AUC of SN-38 were not as different between humans and monkeys as between humans and mice, but the metabolic conversion of CPT-11 into SN-38 in monkeys was significantly lower than in humans.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We studied bioavailability, treatment schedule dependence, and therapeutic efficacy of orally administered MST-16, a novel derivative of bis(2,6-dioxopiperazine), against murine tumors and human tumor xenografts. The rate of its intestinal absorption was about 50%, and it was immediately metabolized to its parent compound, ICRF-154. Therapeutic efficacy of MST-16 was heavily dependent on the treatment schedule: 9 daily oral administrations and treatment every 4 h on day 1 only were much more effective against s.c.-implanted L1210 leukemia than a single dose or five daily administrations giving the same total dose. Orally administered MST-16 showed potent lifeprolonging effects (196%, 219% and 148%) in mice inoculated i.p. with P388, L1210 leukemia, and C-26 colon adenocarcinoma, respectively, but had no effect on B16 melanoma inoculated in the same way. MST-16 inhibited more than 80% growth of Lewis lung carcinoma, B16 melanoma, and C-38 colon adenocarcinoma implanted s.c., but had only a minor effect on M5076 fibrosarcoma. Lung metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma was also effectively suppressed. Furthermore, MST-16 significantly inhibited growth of human colon, lung and breast cancers implanted s.c. in nude mice. We also made a kinetic analysis of the in vitro cell-killing effect by ICRF-154, the active form of MST-16 in vivo. It demonstrated a cell cycle phase-specific and time-dependent action, providing a reasonable explanation for the schedule-dependent therapeutic effect of MST-16.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Based on a pharmacokinetic model proposed by Jusko, which assumes that the cell killing action of cell cycle phase-non-specific agents occurs as a bimolecular reaction depending on drug concentration and cell density, we derived a cell kill kinetic equation for these drugs, including the decomposition constant in culture medium. This equation revealed that the cell killing activity of these drugs depends on the value of concentration x exposure time or the area under the drug concentration-time curve (AUC). It was also clarified that the curves for concentration-exposure time necessary for 90% cell kill on a log scale simulated on the basis of the equation differ according as whether drugs are stable or unstable in the culture medium, being expected to be linear with a slope of-1 in the former case, and to take the form of an asymptotic curve in the latter. For three cell cycle phase-non-specific agents, mitomycin C (MMC), 1-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidine-5-yl)-methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), and nitrogen mustard (HN2), we assessed the concentrations necessary for 90% cell kill (IC90) with various exposure times and the degradation rate constants under the culture conditions used. MMC was quite stable during the incubation, while ACNU and HN2 were unstable. When IC90's and exposure times were plotted on the above-mentioned graph, a linear relationship with a slope of-1 was seen for MMC, while for ACNU and HN2 the anticipated asymptotic curves resulted. We also ascertained that the decomposition constants for ACNU and HN2 expected on the basis of these curves showed a good agreement with the corresponding experimentally observed values. These results indicate that the cell killing action of cell cycle phase-non-specific drugs can be well described by a pharmacodynamic model and equation employing their decomposition constants and are dependent on the concentration-time product.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The relationship between the drug concentration and exposure time of neocarzinostatin (NCS) for a definite cell-killing effect was kinetically analyzed, taking into consideration its loss in biological activity during incubation. Its cell-killing activity was determined by a colony-forming inhibition assay, which was conducted at room temperature (25° C) for 0.5–30 min exposure and at 37° C for 5 min-96 h exposure. Drug degradation at both temperatures was also investigated by bioassay. NCS lost its biological activity much faster at 37° C than at 25° C and the rate of loss in activity was higher at the lower initial concentration. Thus, the initial NCS concentrations necessary for 90% cell kill corresponding to each exposure time and a drug degradation constant were applied to a mathematical equation for the cell-killing effect of cell-cyclephase-nonspecific agents. As a result, the curves for IC90-exposure time relationships predicted from drug degradation constants for 37° C and 25° C were fairly well fitted to the respective experimental data. These results indicate that the cell-killing action of NCS can be expressed by this mathematical equation with scrutiny of drug degradation and is dependent on the concentration-time product (C x T).
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: multidrug resistance ; active efflux ; vincristine ; kinetic analysis ; carrier-mediated transport
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Kinetic analysis of vincristine (VCR) efflux in multidrug-resistant and parental P388 leukemia cells was performed to investigate the difference in activity between the two cell lines. Efflux velocities of VCR were directly determined from the slope of the initial release of drug induced by resuspending the preloaded cells in VCR-free medium, representing unidirectional efflux from intracellular free or loosely bound drug pools. Further, the equilibrium binding of VCR to whole-cell homogenates was analyzed by ultrafiltration to estimate intracellular unbound drug concentrations. A two-site binding model was found to fit the data best for both cell lines, and depletion of ATP by the addition of apyrase decreased binding. The binding parameters were similar between the two cell lines. A Hofstee plot of efflux demonstrated the existence of both linear and saturable transport of VCR in both cell lines. The greater maximum velocity observed with VCR efflux in the resistant cells suggests that an increased number of transporters causes greater activity of this process in the resistant cells.
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