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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Parathyroid hormone ; Osteoporosis ; Trabecular bone ; Cortical bone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract It is commonly believed that the parathyroid hormone's (PTH's) main function in bone is to stimulate osteoclastic resorption. However, intermittent injections of small doses of PTH holoprotein, but more often its bioactive hPTH-(1–34) fragment, have been shown to stimulate bone growth in animals and humans through their ability to stimulate adenylyl cyclase and not their ability to independently activate a protein kinases-C stimulating mechanism. This anabolic action suggests that PTH might be an effective therapeutic for osteoporosis. If so, the hormone must be able to restore severely depleted trabecular bone, and the goal of this study was to find out if it can. To do this, we started a multiweek program of daily subcutaneous injections of 0.8 nmoles of hPTH-(1–34)/100 g body weight into rats at 4, 8, or 16 weeks after ovariectomy (OVX) and the increasingly severe selective loss of trabecular bone. These injections strongly stimulated femoral trabecular bone to grow and mineralize at the same rate regardless of how much of it had been lost before the injections were started. Thus, the progressively depleting trabecular bone in the femurs of OVX rats does not lose its anabolic responsiveness to PTH. This finding is another indication of the likelihood of small, adenylyl cyclase-stimulating PTH fragments being effective therapeutics for osteoporosis.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. N-terminal fragments of PTH and PTHrP, such as hPTH-(1-34) and hPTHrP-(1-34), are sufficiently similar with respect to amino acid sequence, location of functional domains, and higher order configuration to activate the same PTH/PTHrP receptor and the same two signal enzymes, adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase-Cβ. Therefore, it was expected that hPTHrP-(1-31)NH2 would stimulate bone growth in ovariectomized rats as strongly as hPTH-(1-31)NH2. Like hPTH-(1-31)NH2, hPTHrP-(1-31)NH2 stimulated adenyly cyclase in ROS 17/2 osteosarcoma cells as strongly as the standard hPTH-(1-34) and like hPTH-(1-31)NH2, triggered a large drop in mean blood pressure when injected intravenously. Unlike hPTH-(1-31)NH2, however, hPTHrP-(1-31)NH2 could not stimulate trabecular growth in the distal femurs of young, sexually mature, ovariectomized rats.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Bone mineral density — Osteoporosis — Parathyroid hormone analogs — Pelvis — Tibia — Trabecular bone — Vertebrae.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. The native human parathyroid hormone, hPTH-(1-84), and certain carboxyl truncated analogs such as hPTH-(1-34) and even smaller fragments such as hPTH-(1-31)NH2, [Leu27]cyclo(Glu22-Lys26)hPTH-(1-31)NH2, and hPTH-(1-30)NH2 stimulate femoral trabecular and cortical bone growth in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Here we show that when injected once daily for 6 weeks starting 2 weeks after OVX in doses of 1 or 2 nmol/100 g of body weight, hPTH-(1-31)NH2, [Leu27]cyclo(Glu22-Lys26)hPTH-(1-31)NH2, and hPTH-(1-34)NH2 prevented the loss of trabecular volume in the L5 vertebrae induced by OVX. In fact, by the end of the sixth week of injections (i.e., the eighth week after OVX) the fragments had increased the volume and trabecular thickness significantly above the values in vehicle-injected sham-operated rats. hPTH-(1-30)NH2 can stimulate vertebral bone growth as much as the larger fragments, but 10–25 times more of it was needed to do so. The same daily doses of hPTH-(1-31)NH2, [Leu27]cyclo(Glu22-Lys26)hPTH-(1-31)NH2, and hPTH-(1-34)NH2 also raised the trabecular volume and thickness in the L5 vertebrae of rats well above the values in vehicle-treated animals when the injections were started 9 weeks after OVX. This restoration of trabecular bone in the L5 vertebrae in estrogen-deprived animals was accompanied by a significant increase in the bone mineral density (BMD) of the L1–L4 vertebrae and tibias. However, there was no significant drop in the pelvic BMD in the estrogen-deprived animals and the effects of hPTH-(1-31)NH2, [Leu27]cyclo(Glu22-(Lys) hPTH-(1-31)NH2, and hPTH-(1-34)NH2 on the pelvic BMD were equivocal.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Parathyroid hormone — Hypotensive action — Osteogenesis — Blood Pressure — Bone — Adenylyl cyclase — Phospholipase C.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), hPTH-(1-84), and its hPTH-(1-34), hPTH-(1-31)NH2, and hPTH-(1-30)NH2 fragments reduced the tail artery pressure in anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by 42.4–67.1% within about 1 minute after injection into a femoral vein, but reduced the pressure by only 8.5–36.2% 2–19 minutes after subcutaneous injection. hPTH-(1-84) and hPTH-(1-34) stimulate both adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase-C in their target cells, but the hypotensive action must have been stimulated specifically by adenylyl cyclase activation, because hPTH-(1-30)NH2 and hPTH-(1-31)NH2, which can only stimulate adenylyl cyclase, were potently hypotensive when injected intravenously whereas hPTH-(7-84), which can only stimulate phospholipase-C, was not significantly hypotensive when injected intravenously. Since PTH's osteogenic action is also mediated by adenylyl cyclase stimulation, it was expected that the hypotensive response might be used to screen new PTH constructs for possible osteogenicity. Indeed, the osteogenic activities of subcutaneously injected hPTH-(1-31)NH2, hPTH-(1-34), and hPTH-(1-84) correlated closely to their hypotensive activities, with hPTH-(1-34) being much more hypotensive and significantly more osteogenic than the other two molecules. hPTH-(1-31)NH2 and hPTH-(1-84) were equally osteogenic and hypotensive. However, this correlation broke down with hPTH-(1-30)NH2 which does not stimulate bone formation, but in the present study it stimulated adenylyl cyclase and reduced tail artery pressure almost as much as hPTH-(1-31)NH2 and hPTH-(1-34). Nevertheless, the ability to significantly reduce arterial pressure is a common property of osteogenic PTH and PTH fragments and is thus a rapidly determinable preliminary indicator of in vivo bioactivity of PTH fragments.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Parathyroid hormone — Osteoporosis — Trabecular bone.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. hPTH-(1-31)NH2, so far the smallest of the potently anabolic N-terminal fragments of the human parathyroid hormone, stimulates trabecular growth in the distal femurs of ovariectomized (OVX) rats as strongly as hPTH-(1-34) when injected at a high daily dose such as 1 nmol/100 g of body weight, but it is only about 70% as effective as hPTH-(1-34) when injected at the suboptimal 0.6 nmol/100 g of body weight. A lactam derivative of hPTH-(1-31)-NH2, [Leu27]-cyclo(Glu22-Lys26)-hPTH-(1-31)NH2, is a much more effective stimulator of adenylyl cyclase in ROS 17/2 rat osteoblast-like cells and a significantly more effective stimulator of femoral trabecular growth in OVX rats than hPTH-(1-31)NH2. We have now shown that [Leu27]-cyclo(Glu22-Lys26)-hPTH-(1-31)NH2 prevents the OVX-induced loss of femoral trabeculae significantly more effectively than hPTH-(1-34) and stimulates the thickening of the trabeculae remaining in severely depleted femoral trabecular bone of OVX rats as effectively as hPTH-(1-34) when injected at 0.6 nmol/100 g of body weight.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Parathyroid hormone — Osteoporosis — Trabecular bone — hPTH-(1-31)NH2— Ostabolin.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. The human parathyroid hormone, hPTH-(1-84), and its hPTH-(1-34) fragment are promising anabolic agents for treating osteoporosis because they can strongly stimulate the production of biomechanically effective cortical and trabecular bone in osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats and trabecular bone in osteoporotic postmenopausal humans. The ideal PTH fragment for treating osteoporosis would be the smallest and functionally simplest fragment that activates only one signal mechanism and still strongly stimulates trabecular bone growth. A new PTH fragment, hPTH-(1-31)NH2, which only stimulates adenylyl cyclase instead of stimulating both adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase-C as do hPTH-(1-84) and hPTH-(1-34), is this minimum, high-potency anabolic fragment. hPTH-(1-31)NH2 (which we have named Ostabolin) can greatly thicken trabeculae and increase the dry weight and calcium content of trabecular bone in the distal femurs of osteopenic, young, sexually mature OVX Sprague-Dawley rats when injected subcutaneously each day for 6 weeks at doses between 0.4 and 1.6 nmole/100 g of body weight.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Parathyroid hormone — Osteoporosis — Trabecular bone — Ostabolin.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. A recombinant human parathyroid hormone, rhPTH-(1-84), which is currently in Phase II clinical trial, and hPTH-(1-31)NH2 (Ostabolin) are promising anabolic agents for treating osteoporosis because they can stimulate cortical and trabecular bone growth in osteopenic, ovariectomized (OVX) rats and in osteoporotic, postmenopausal women when injected subcutaneously and intermittently at low doses. We have now found that, despite their different sizes and signaling properties (rhPTH-(1-84) stimulates adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C; hPTH-(1-31)NH2 only stimulates adenylyl cyclase), they are equally osteogenic in OVX rats. Thus daily subcutaneous injections of 0.6 nmol/100 g of body weight of rhPTH-(1-84) or hPTH-(1-31)NH2 into 3-month-old OVX rats for 6 weeks starting 2 weeks after OVX equally reduced the otherwise large OVX-triggered loss of femoral trabecular bone. Daily subcutaneous injections of 0.4 or 0.8 nmol/100 g of body weight of the two agents for 6 weeks also equally increased the mean thickness of the remaining femoral trabeculae in 3-month-old and 1-year-old OVX rats to 20 to 80% above the value in normal animals when started 9 weeks after ovariectomy.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Adenylyl cyclase — Cyclic (c)AMP — Osteoporosis — Parathyroid hormone — Phospholipase-C — Trabecular bone.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. It has been proposed that intermittent bursts of adenylyl cyclase and the surges of cyclic AMP (cAMP) they produce can trigger PTH's bone anabolic action without the activation of phospholipase-C (PLC). This was based on the osteogenic action in ovariectomized (OVX) rats of hPTH-(1-31)NH2, which can stimulate adenylyl cyclase but not PLC in ROS 17/2 rat osteosarcoma cells, and the osteogenic impotence of fragments such as 1-desamino-hPTH-(1-34) and hPTH-(8-84) which strongly stimulate PLC but not adenylyl cyclase. But this seems to have been disproven by the inability of hPTH-(1-30)NH2 to stimulate bone growth despite its having hPTH-(1-31)NH2's ability to strongly stimulate adenylyl cyclase but not PLC in cells with rat type1 PTH/PTHrP receptors. Because of the importance of hPTH-(1-30)NH2's apparent osteogenic impotence for knowing how PTH triggers bone growth, we have reinvestigated the fragment's ability to stimulate trabecular bone growth in the femurs of young OVX rats and have found it to be strongly osteogenic at doses 2–10 times higher than the highest dose used previously. Thus, 6 weeks of once-daily subcutaneous injections of 10–50 nmol of hPTH-(1-30)NH2/100 g of body weight into young rats starting 2 weeks after OVX significantly increased the femoral trabecular volume and mean thickness of individual trabeculae above those in sham-operated control rats. In OVX rats treated with 50 nmol of hPTH-(1-30)NH2/100 g of body weight, the trabecular volume was 2.6 times higher and the mean trabecular thickness nearly 4 times higher than in the sham-operated control rats. This very large increase in the mean trabecular thickness was as much as the increase induced by 2 nmol/100 g of body weight of hPTH-(1-31)NH2, [Leu27]cyclo(Glu22-Lys26)-hPTH-(1-31)NH2, hPTH-(1-34)NH2 and [Leu27]cyclo(Glu22-Lys26)-hPTH-(1-34)NH2. These results have removed a major objection to the proposal that PTH's osteogenic action in rats can be triggered solely by intermittent surges of cAMP and the bursts of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity they cause.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: During the first six passages after their arrival in this laboratory, BALB/c 3T3 mouse cells did not proliferate in serum containing-medium having an ionic calcium concentration of 0.05 mM or less, but by the ninth passage they had become able to multiply in the presence of these lower calcium levels. In low calcium (e.g., 0.02 mM) medium, passage 1-6, cells in sparse cultures were blocked at the Gl/S boundary of their cycle. These blocked cells could be induced to start making DNA within only one hour either by returning the ionic calcium level to a normal range of values (1.25 mM), or by adding 0.05 μg/ml of PMA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate). PMA probably acted by sensitizing the blocked cells to calcium rather than replacing the ion, because it was ineffective in ionic calcium-free medium. Finally, PMA did not by itself induce proliferation of cells (regardless of the number of passages) which had been proliferatively inactivated by density-dependent factors in confluent cultures. However, PMA did promote DNA synthesis by these cells during their brief transition to the “cycling” state caused by exposure to fresh serum-containing medium.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The proliferative activity of diploid human WI-38 cells in sparse cultures depends on the extracellular concentration of free (or physiologically available) calcium, and cultivation in a medium having a calcium concentration of 0.1 mM or less gradually, but reversibly, arrest their proliferative development in the prereplicative (G1) phase of the cell cycle. Calcium's proliferative control of this cell type is eliminated by proliferative and morphological transformation by the oncogenic SV-40 virus, and the proliferative activity of SV-WI-38 cells in sparse cultures is unaffected by variation of the extracellular free calcium concentration between 0.00 and 1.25 mM.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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