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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Affective Disorders 32 (1994), S. 277-286 
    ISSN: 0165-0327
    Keywords: Antidepressant ; Depression ; Suicide ; Toxicology
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Antidepressants ; Prescription database; utili zation ; tolerability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To study whether the newer antidepressants have changed the patterns of antidepressant use, and whether the claimed better adverse effect profile of the newer antidepressants is reflected in their use as monitored by a prescription database. Method: By means of a prescription database (OPED), the use of antidepressants from 1991 to 1993 in Odense, Denmark, was analysed. Results: The 1-year prevalence of antidepressant use increased significantly from 1.60% to 2.00%, which still is below the claimed 1-year prevalence of depression of at least 5%. The increase was mainly due to a rapidly increasing use of the newer antidepressants, accompanied by a moderate decline in the use of older antidepressants (mainly tricyclic antidepressants). The patterns of antidepressant use were very polymorphic, with about 5% being on continuous use for all 3 years and groups of each 20–30% being treated with: (1) several series or (2) one series or (3) only by one prescription. The share of patients presenting only one prescription (20%) was the same for older and newer antidepressants. Likewise, the rate of shifts from older to newer antidepressants or vice versa was the same (7% vs 6%). The duration of treatment did not differ much between older and newer antidepressants. Relative to the defined daily dose (DDD), the older antidepressants were given in much lower doses (median 0.63 DDD) than the newer antidepressants (median 1.05 DDD). Conclusion: It is concluded that many depressed patients are still not receiving antidepressant treatment and that the claimed better adverse effect profile of the newer antidepressants was not clearly reflected in their use.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0460
    Keywords: Upper esophageal sphincter ; behavior
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract If the posterior part of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) were to lag behind due to the presence of dense tissue strands between the sphincter and the prevertebral ligament, as suggested in the literature, it would be impossible to use the larynx as a radiographic indicator of the location of the UES at intraluminal pressure measurements. The goal of this investigation was to study UES behavior during induced movements in autopsy specimens and to search for dense fibrous strands between the UES and the prevertebral fascia. Histologic studies of frozen sections and paraffin sections showed a loose fatty tissue in the prevertebral space. There were no dense connective tissue strands. Autopsy specimens were used in experiments mimicking the laryngeal/UES elevation during swallowing. The results of this study indicate that the larynx and the UES move as one entity. When one is attempting to register the UES movement during swallowing, the laryngeal skeleton can therefore serve as a radiographic indicator of the UES movements.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Using lipid histochemical and microradiographic methods, the distribution of lipids and the inorganic component in different areas of salivary calculi was investigated. Two main groups of lipids were found, i.e. hydrophilic phospholipids and hydrophobic lipids. The hydrophilic phospholipids were shown to be composed mainly of phosphosphingosides and of the hydrophobic lipids cholesterol was demonstrated.Phosphosphingosides were localized in more or less lamellar zones as also in large homogeneous areas. In some cases the calculi were surrounded by a structureless non-mineralized zone exhibiting a strongly positive reaction for phosphosphingosides. Cholesterol was found in isolated band-formed areas. Phosphosphingosides and cholesterol were especially prevalent in areas showing a low or slight degree of mineralization.In areas showing a high degree of mineralization the corresponding lipids gave a weak or absent histochemical reaction. After EDTA-decalcification, however, an increase in the concentration of lipid was noticed in high mineralized areas, indicating a masking process.The influence of various factors on the presence and distribution of different lipids was discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: An investigation was undertaken to study the distribution of enzymes associated with submandibular gland salivary calculi. Ten calculi were freeze-sectioned and incubated for acid and alkaline phosphatases and for lactate, succinate and maleate dehydrogenases. All calculi were partly covered by a 50–210 μm wide zone of organic material consisting of connective tissue and metaplastic squamous epithelium facing the mineralized calculus, or of a structureless substance attached to the mineralized calculus. The epithelium showed an intense staining reaction for acid phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and a moderate reaction for succinate dehydrogenase throughout all levels of the epithelium. The structureless peripheral zone exhibited a moderate activity of acid phosphatase and succinate dehydrogenase located to an area close to the mineralized matrix. Also alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were found in a special pattern in the structureless zone. Sodium fluoride and sodium vanadate added to the incubation medium inhibited acid phosphatase activity whereas cupric chloride only lowered the staining reaction. Enzyme activity was found only within the peripheral zone of organic material with one exception. The results suggest that the calcification process of salivary calculi is not a passive calcification of necrotic material or mucin but rather an active process promoted by enzymes in the surrounding organic substances.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Two hundred and one cases of intraoral salivary gland tumors were studied from the files of the School of Pathology, University of the Witwaterstrand and South African Institute for Medical Research. 145 cases (72.5%) were classified as benign, comprising 140 pleomorphic adenomas and 5 monomorphic adenomas. The other 56 cases were classified as malignant or potentially malignant tumors, represented by 21 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 15 adenocarcinomas, 13 mucoepidermoid tumors, 5 carcinoma in pleomorphic adenomas and 2 epidermoid carcinomas. The patients in the malignant/potentially malignant group were significantly older than those in the benign group and a smaller proportion of their tumors were palatal, the difference being statistically significant. The high frequency of pleomorphic adenoma might result from a relatively higher number of black than white patients in this sample.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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