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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To elucidate the role of the KVLQT1 gene in the pathogenesis of long QT syndrome (LQTS), we have established a screening system for detecting KVLQT1 mutations by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism technique (PCR-SSCP). We first determined exon/intron boundaries and flanking intronic sequences, and found that the KVLQT1 gene consists of 17 coding exons. Subsequently, we synthesized oligonucleotide primers to cover the coding region and the flanking intronic sequences, and searched for mutations in 31 Japanese LQTS families. When genomic DNA from each proband was examined by PCR-SSCP followed by direct DNA sequencing, mutations were detected in five families; two independent families carried the same mutation and three of the four were novel. Each mutation was present in affected relatives of the respective proband. This work will enable us to search more thoroughly for LQTS mutations associated with KVLQT1, and eventually will help us in finding genotype/phenotype relationships.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Familial long QT syndrome (LQTS) is characterized by prolonged ventricular repolarization. Clinical symptoms include recurrent syncopal attacks, and sudden death may occur as a result of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Three genes responsible for this syndrome (KVLQT1, HERG, and SCN5A) have been identified so far, and mutations have been reported on the basis of partially characterized genomic organization. To optimize the search for HERG mutations, we have determined the genomic structure of HERG and investigated mutations in LQTS families. Human genomic clones containing the HERG gene were isolated from a human genomic library by using reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products from this gene as probes. We determined exon/intron boundaries and flanking intronic sequences by using primers synthesized on the basis of the HERG cDNA sequence available in the DNA database. HERG was shown to consist of 15 exons spanning approximately 19 kb on chromosome 7q35. Subsequently, we synthesized oligonucleotide primers to cover the entire coding region and searched for mutations in 36 Japanese LQTS families. When genomic DNA from each proband was examined by the PCR/single-strand conformation polymorphism technique followed by direct DNA sequencing, five novel mutations were detected. Each mutation was present in affected relatives of the respective proband. This work should increase the efficiency of screening mutations associated with HERG.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. A Gram-negative, motile bacterium with bipolar sheathed flagella (one at each end) was isolated from the stomach of house musk shrews (Suncus murinus) with chronic gastritis. The isolates grew at 37°C under microaerophilic conditions, but not under aerobic conditions; rapidly hydrolyzed urea; were catalase, oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, and arginine aminopeptidase positive; reduced nitrate to nitrite; and were resistant to cephalothin and nalidixic acid, but sensitive to tetracycline, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol. This bacterium was found on gastric epithelial cells by electron microscopy. In addition, a coccoid form of the bacteria was found in vacuoles formed in the epithelial cells of some of the house musk shrews tested. These results, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strongly suggested that this bacterium should be classified as a novel Helicobacter species. It is proposed that this bacterium should be called “Helicobacter suncus.”
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The current status of Helicobacter contamination of laboratory mice, rats, gerbils, and house musk shrews from 47, 10, 4, and 3 colonies, respectively, in Japan was studied. Helicobacter was detected by reverse transcription (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with Helicobacter genus-specific primers by using feces obtained from the animals. H. hepaticus, H. muridarum, H. bilis, H. rodentium, “Flexispira rappini”, and “H. suncus” were identified with species-specific primers. Other species of Helicobacter were identified by sequencing of PCR products amplified with genus-specific primers. For mice, H. hepaticus, H. bilis, H. rodentium including H. rodentium-like organism, “H. typhlonicus”-like organism, and H. westmeadii-like organism were detected from 12 (25.5%), 1 (2.1%), 18 (38.3%), 1 (2.1%), and 1 (2.1%) colonies, respectively. Forty-seven (5.7%) mice from six (12.8%) colonies were contaminated with both H. hepaticus and H. rodentium. H. rodentium was detected in rats from three (30.0%) colonies. In gerbils, H. hepaticus was detected in three (75.0%) colonies, but other species of Helicobacter were not detected. In house musk shrews, “H. suncus” was detected in animals from two (66.7%) colonies. Visible lesions in the liver, which showed multiple pale to white foci, were observed in 6/42, 5/174, and 1/21 mice infected with H. hepaticus, H. rodentium, and H. hepaticus/H. rodentium, respectively, and 1/14 gerbils infected with H. hepaticus. The results suggest the prevalence of these species of Helicobacter in mice, rats, gerbils, and house musk shrews in Japan.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Company
    Nature biotechnology 5 (1987), S. 794-799 
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] In the near future, the progression of bioscience and biotechnology research will reveal developments now hidden under the surface of the Japanese pharmaceutical industry. These developments must be seen in the context of four over-riding trends. • The triangular struggle—among ...
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Company
    Nature biotechnology 3 (1985), S. 1072-1072 
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] No Japanese group—public or private—has yet made any attempt to field-test a recombinant microbe. Most commercial research here centers on contained processes, especially fermentations for the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Some applications to pest control, bacterial metal ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A negative deep UV resist, LMR, has been developed. LMR is a diazonaphthoquinonesulfonate of cresol novolac resin and possesses a high sensitivity of 15 mJ/cm2 and a high resolution up to 0.2 μm by contact printing. An important feature of LMR is the production of negative images with overhung profiles. Such profiles are attributed to LMR possessing a large absorbance in the deep UV region (12 μm-1 at 250 nm), which is of great advantage to the lift-off process in the fabrication of GaAs-FET, surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, and so on. Furthermore, because of the good thermal stability of LMR, it can liftoff hard metals such as Ni and Mo. In order to elucidate the phenomenon that deep UV irradiation retards the dissolution rate of LMR, a mechanistic study has been carried out. In both LMR and its analog lacking diazoquinone moiety, their molecular weights Increase upon deep UV irradiation, which suggests that crosslinking occurs in the base resin. This is supported by 13C NMR analyses of photochemical reaction products and by detection of radical species produced from the base resin. The photochemical reaction of the base resin is important to understand the overall lithographic performance of LMR.
    Additional Material: 17 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Company
    Nature biotechnology 2 (1984), S. 1041-1043 
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] Sogoshosha, or trading companies, are an unusual feature of Japanese business, and these companies are willing to take an active role in developing Japanese biotechnology. The best known trading companies—Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Marubeni, C. Itoh, Sumitomo, and Nissho Iwai—are agents for ...
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