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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Thyroid neoplasms ; Electron microscopy ; Immunohistochemistry ; Calcitonin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An ultrastructural study, both morphological and immunohistochemical, has been carried out on eight thyroglobulin-positive and nine thyroglobulin-negative medullary carcinomas of the thyroid. The morphometric analysis of granule size showed that all tumours contained cells with small granules and cells with medium size granules, whereas eight tumours had additional cells with large granules. The small granules had an electron dense core, while the medium and large sized granules were both pale-cored and dense-cored. The cells with small, medium or large secretory granules were all immunoreactive for calcitonin and CGRP. No ultrastructural differences were observed between thyroglobulin-positive and thyroglobulin-negative cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: : The effect of hippocampal kindling on the regional brain concentration of total glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of reactive astrocytes, was studied in partially kindled rats, and in fully kindled rats after a post-kindling period of 24h, 1 week, and 2 months. GFAP concentration was measured in arbitrary units by dot-blots. In the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, basolateral amygdala, pyriform cortex, and entorhinal cortex, limbic structures which are known to be involved in the kindling process, there was an increase in GFAP concentration which was maximal in the fully kindled animals studied after 24 h. In most brain areas, GFAP concentration was still elevated 1 week post-kindling, but had declined to control level 2 months post-kindling. A significant increase in GFAP was also found in septum, ventral pallidum/accumbens nucleus, and primary motor cortex of kindled rats with a post-kindling period of 24h, whereas in several other brain regions GFAP was unchanged. These results suggest that astrocyte activation, indicative of degenerative changes in nearby neurons, is a transient and regional phenomenon in kindling occurring only during the development of the kindled state.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The effect of treatment with the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP) on neural development was monitored in rats by following the expression of the neuron-specific proteins neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), D1, and D3 as well as the enzymes glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH). As judged from the effect of the treatment on the expression of NCAM and GAD, GABA agonists have the capacity to accelerate and enhance neuronal development during the early postnatal period. However, as judged from the expression of D1-and D3-protein some adverse late effects may result from prolonged treatment with high doses of GABA agonists. The decrease in GLDH specific activity observed in THIP-treated rats during their late postnatal development possibly indicates a repression of glutamatergic neurons.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Background. In the Danish Town Hall Study" it has previously been shown that the sick building syndrome is a widespread phenomenon. This has given rise to speculations as to whether biologically active components in dust or whether absorbed organic gases and vapours in the indoor climate may be partly responsible for the sick building syndrome. Therefore, we wished to study whether qualitative conditions in dust, of a physical, chemical, and biological nature, are related to the prevalence of symptoms of the sick building syndrome. Material and methods. The study included 12 town halls in the Copenhagen area. A total of 870 persons participated, 584 women and 286 men. All the participants filled out a questionnaire regarding health and working conditions, and dust samples were collected with a special vacuum cleaner in the working environment of the participants, after which the contents of inorganic and organic particles as well as of human source fragments the (hair, nails, skin) and various fibres were determined. Results. There was a significant correlation (P〈0.05) between the prevalence of gram-negative bacteria in the indoor climate dust, and general symptoms (fatigue, heavy-headedness, headache, dizziness, concentration problems) (corr.coeff.=0.73), as well as symptoms from the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract (corr.coeff.=0.76). Also, there was a significant relation between the prevalence of particles in the dust and the prevalence of symptoms from the mucous membranes (corr.coeff.=0.81). There was a strong and significant correlation between the total amount of volatile organic components (TVOC) and lack of concentration (corr.coeff. =0.85) and feeling heavy-headed (corr.coeff.=0.72). Macromolecular dust (potentially allergenetic material) was significantly correlated to the prevalence of headache and general malaise/dizziness (corr.coeff.=0.66), while the ability of the dust to liberate histamine was significantly related to the prevalence of general malaise, dizziness (corr.coeff.=0.65) and lack of concentration (corr.coeff. =0.58). Further analyses including a number of potential confounders did not change the results of the above analyses. Conclusion. The results of this study support the hypothesis that qualitative properties of dust are important to the sick building syndrome. The study was based on relatively few buildings, but nevertheless strong correlations were found. In perspective, epidemiological intervention studies should be carried out to investigate whether minimizing the amount of both dust and bacteria in the indoor climate affect the prevalence of sick building syndrome.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 39 (1982), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The rat brain enolases are dimers composed of α and γ subunits. At pH 8.6 αγ-enolase seemed to be stable, and no evidence was found for the possible formation of αγ-enolase from αα-enolase and γγ-enolase in the course of rat brain homogenization. During ontogeny of the rat forebrain, αγ-enolase was formed before γγ-enolase. The half-maximal specific concentrations were reached at postnatal days 14 and 23, respectively. The distribution of αγ- and γγ-enolase in various rat brain areas was also investigated. In all areas both forms were present. In neuroendocrine tissues αγ-enolase was present at a much higher concentration than γγ-enolase. The ratio between γγ-enolase and αγ-enolase may be indicative of the degree of neuronal maturation, a conclusion further substantiated by the high ratio observed in cerebellum and the low ratio observed in olfactory bulbs, both compared with the ratio in forebrain.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 37 (1981), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The D2-protein exists as a sialylated form in fetal and in perinatal rat brain, and as a desialylated form in adult rat brain. By crossed Immunoelectrophoresis the concentrations and amounts of these forms were investigated during ontogeny of both forebrain and cerebellum. The concentration of sialylated D2-protein reached two peaks during ontogeny. The first peak occurred in forebrain around embryonic day 13, and in cerebellum just after birth. In both brain areas it coincided with the periods of major neuronal migration. The second peak occurred in forebrain around postnatal day 6 and in cerebellum around postnatal day 20, during the initial period of synaptogenesis in both brain areas. Moreover, the desialylated form of D2-protein was found only in postnatal rats and it increased to a slight maximum at postnatal day 25 in forebrain, and postnatal day 35 in cerebellum. The findings are discussed in relation to the possible role of D2-protein as an adhesion molecule.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 35 (1980), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The forebrain content of several rat brain synaptic proteins (synaptin, D1, D2, and D3) was reduced in rats receiving electroconvulsive seizures on days 2–11, 9–18, or 19–28 and sacrificed at the age of 30 days. Forebrain weight, total protein, and the glial enzyme glutamine synthetase were also decreased, whereas the neuronal enolase 14–3–2 was unchanged. The findings suggest that seizures in the immature rat brain resulted in a parallel reduction of synaptic material and of the amount of glial cells. The increased concentration of the enolase 14–3–2 found in rats seizured on days 19–28 may reflect the high demands on the glycolytic system during the seizures.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the expression of the neuron-associated D2 and neuronspecific enolase (NSE) was studied during development in culture of cerebellar granule cells. It was found that the presence of GABA during culture development increased the overall protein content. D2 content was also increased but not above the general increase in protein whereas NSE increased above the general level of protein.The presence of GABA in the growth medium also appeared to accelerate the changes in molecular forms of D2 and NSE seen during neuronal development. This suggests that GABA promotes or accelerates the general maturation of neurons, as these two neuron-associated proteins otherwise differ from each other with respect to their subcellular localization and their physiological and biochemical properties.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A special test fixture has been developed for fracture mechanical testing of brittle materials inside an environmental scanning electron microscope. The fixture loads a double cantilever beam specimen with pure bending moments and provides stable crack growth. Crack growth is detected by in situ observation and acoustic emission. As an example, crack growth in a cubic-phase yttria-stabilized zirconia is detected easily by in situ observation of the crack-tip region. Many fracture toughness measurements are obtained for each specimen, giving high confidence in the measured fracture toughness value. In situ observation is useful for the study of toughening mechanisms and subcritical crack-growth behavior and to sort out erroneous measurements (e.g., due to crack branching).
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: 5HT transport protein ; [3H]paroxetine binding ; β-Adrenergic receptor ; Lithium treatment ; D3 protein ; NCAM ; Treatment regimens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Rats were treated with lithium administered either via the food or by intraperitoneal injection. Lithium administration via the food results in a rather stable serum lithium concentration, whereas lithium injection results in a varying serum lithium concentration whereby a sharp increase shortly after the injection is followed by an exponential decline until the next injection (Plenge et al. 1981) After 5 months of lithium treatment the 5HT transport protein, theβ-adrenergic receptor and several other brain proteins were determined. The 5HT transport protein, labelled with [3H]paroxetine, was found to be decreased in the lithium-injected rats (Bmax=347 fmol/mg protein) but was unchanged in the lithium-fed rats (Bmax=389 fmol/mg protein), as compared with control rats (Bmax=396 fmol/mg protein), and therefore probably is a specific effect only seen with varying lithium concentration. In contrast, the neuronal membrane marker protein D3 was decreased in the lithium-fed rats (88% of the control value), and showed a trend towards decrease in the lithium-injected rats. The decrease in D3 in the lithium-fed rats may indicate some neuronal damage due to the continous presence of lithium. This damage may be more pronounced than in rats, where periods of low lithium concentration enable repair to take place. Theβ-adrenergic receptor and the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM were unaffected by the different lithium treatment regimens. Lithium has been reported to inhibit the 5HT1B receptor (the serotonin autoreceptor). We postulate that the two effects, i.e. overall lithium-induced inhibition of the 5HT autoreceptor and the down-regulation of the 5HT transport protein in rats with changing lithium concentration shown in the present study, may combine to augment the 5HT concentration in the synaptic cleft; increased 5HT in the cleft possibly being relevant in prophylactic lithium treatment of manic depressive disorders.
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