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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Key words Anterior cruciate ; ligament ; Isolated partial rupture ; Knee laxity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract The majority of previous studies on partial ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) include a relatively large proportion of knees with associated intra-articular injury or collateral ligament tear that contributes to an increase in the symptoms of instability and further deterioration of knee function. In the present study only patients with isolated, partial ruptures of the ACL were evaluated. Fifty-six patients with one injured knee were examined after a median of 5.3 (range 2.0–12.7) years using the IKDC evaluation form, Lysholm knee function score and Tegner activity score. Of the 56 knees, 6 underwent autologous reconstruction due to early progression to complete rupture. Of 34 knees evaluated for laxity, 25 had a negative Lachman test and 7 a positive (+) Lachman. In 2 knees a Lachman ++ result and a positive pivot shift were found. With instrumented laxity testing 24 knees had 2 mm or less difference in laxity compared with the contralateral uninjured knee. The largest side-to-side difference in knee laxity was 4.5 mm. Lysholm score was median 86 (range 52–100) points, and 62% had good or excellent knee function. A significant decline in activity was seen. Only 10 patients (30%) resumed their preinjury activities. We find that the majority of patients with an isolated, partial rupture of the ACL have an acceptable knee function and a stable knee after a median 5 years follow-up. There is, however, a marked reduction in activity.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Key words Shoulder ; Instability ; Bankart repair ; Arthroscopy ; Dislocation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract A total of 41 consecutive patients (11 women and 30 men, median age 29 (18–51) years) with unilateral, isolated, posttraumatic, recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation and a Bankart lesion were operatively repaired, either by an arthroscopic technique including a capsular plication, or by an open procedure with Mitec anchors. All the patients were followed prospectively and evaluated after a median of 36 (30–52) months follow-up by a “blind” observer. Nineteen patients in each group had excellent or good results, and one in each group was graded as fair. One patient in the arthroscopic group had a traumatic dislocation 5 months after the operation and was graded as poor. Three patients experienced subluxations postoperatively, one in the arthroscopic and two in the open group. There was no significant difference in anterior-posterior shoulder laxity measured objectively with Donjoy. The open Bankart repair group had a statistically significantly longer hospitalization (P = 0.001), a slight decrease in external range of motion, and more frequent cosmetic complaints. Apart from this, the results revealed no major differences between the two methods after a median of 36 months in this selected group of patients with longstanding problems.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Key words Downhill skiing ; Epidemiology ; Health education ; Knee injuries
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract Despite various attempts at prevention, injury in downhill skiing continues to be a worrisome recreational problem. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of an instructional ski video on the behaviour and injuries of 763 downhill skiers. They were enrolled in two study groups, based on whether or not an instructional video had been shown in their bus on the way to a skiing resort. The video focussed on information regarding how to get started in downhill skiing and injury prevention. The outcome parameters, behaviour (binding test and adjustment), injury risk, type and consequence, were registered on the return trip 8 days later by a questionnaire. In the intervention group all outcome parameters changed significantly. The binding test was performed by 86% in the intervention group and by only 59% in the control group (P 〈 0.05). Adjustment of the bindings was done by 22% in the intervention group vs 14% in the control group. Regarding injury risk, 205 injuries were seen in 158 persons (20.7%) which is 26 injured skiers per 1000 skier-days and 33.6 injuries per 1000 skier-days. In the intervention group 16% of all skiers were injured vs 23% in the control group, yielding a reduction in injury risk of 30% (P 〈 0.05). Injuries caused by falls were seen in 12.6% in the intervention group vs 16.2% in the control group (P 〈 0.05). Injuries caused by collision were seen in 6% of the intervention group vs 12% in the control group (P 〈 0.05). The overall mean injury risk was 16 injuries per 1000 falls. Knee injuries made up 32.6% of the total. For inexperienced skiers the knee injury risk was significantly lower if the bindings had been tested (P 〈 0.05). Therefore, an instructional ski video can change the behaviour of downhill skiers and reduce the injury risk and consequences significantly.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] In the favoured core-accretion model of formation of planetary systems, solid planetesimals accumulate to build up planetary cores, which then accrete nebular gas if they are sufficiently massive. Around M-dwarf stars (the most common stars in our Galaxy), this model favours the formation of ...
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Non-traumatic shoulder pain in the overhead athlete is a diagnostic challenge. In the last decade shoulder arthroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have extended our knowledge. Previously unknown pathologic changes in the glenohumeral joint have been demonstrated and it is recognized that impingement symptoms and instability are often related. Shoulder dysfunction in overhead athletes may be caused by shoulder instability. However, a possible instability in the shoulder is often “silent” and difficult to demonstrate by ordinary tests and has therefore by some been termed “functional instability”. It is now thought that functional instability in the shoulder may lead to a vicious cycle involving microtraumata and attenuation of the capsular complex, and may eventually lead to shoulder pain. Changes in shoulder proprioception, measured by testing kinaesthetic sense and position sense, can be related to different pathologic changes in the shoulder, and sensory motor control may be an important factor for functional stability in the shoulder. MRI and arthroscopical findings in athletes with shoulder pain are changes in the glenoid labrum, the humeral head, the rotator cuff, biceps tendon and the capsular complex. However, these findings often present other clinical entities than impingement and are not always associated with instability. Clinically, there are tests that can objectively distinguish some of the pathological findings. However, we need more exact methods to further improve our clinical diagnoses of the painful shoulder. One of the keys could be an extended knowledge about the pathophysiology behind functional instability. This review focuses on an improved terminology in impingement based on the current knowledge of impingement and instability in the shoulder.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: During one alpine skiing season injuries were registered prospectively among 951 Danish alpine skiers. The injury incidence was 19.4 injuries per 1000 skiing days, or 3.4 injuries per 1000 skiing hours. The incidence of injuries treated by a doctor was 5.9 injuries per 1000 skiing days, which is 2–5 times higher than previously reported. Lower extremity doctor-treated injuries comprised 65% of the total and upper extremity doctor-treated injuries 25% - a distribution seen 25 years ago in alpine skiing countries. Only 18% of the thumb injuries were seen by a doctor. Neither age, preholiday training, self-rated skiing ability, ski school attendance during the week nor the use of rented versus owned equipment significantly influenced the risk of injury.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: A case of longstanding posttraumatic anterolateral shoulder pain in a 25-year-old woman is presented. It was primarily unsuccessfully handled as impingement syndrome but turned out to be caused by pseudarthrosis of the acromion. The abnormality was not apparent on plain X-ray film. The suspicion was raised after scintigraphy, which showed increased density in the acromion. The diagnosis was made by computerized tomography and confirmed and treated successfully surgically.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: One of the problems following an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is to regain strength. We tested 11 patients (5 men, 6 women), mean age 28.4 years, with unilateral ACL insufficiency, with two braces (Donjoy Legend, and Bledsoe Brace Force III) versus a placebo brace. The patients were tested on a Biodex Dynamometer at 60 and 180 deg/s in an isokinetic mode. The experiment was designed as a comparative study in a crossover design with the stable knee as the patient's own control. We found no statistically significant effect of the two braces compared to a placebo brace under the test conditions, and no correlation between knee laxity and the effect of bracing.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: One hundred and thirty-two consecutive soccer players (117 males and 15 females, median age 23, range 16–39 years) underwent primary reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with an iliotibial band (ITB) autograft. All patients were followed prospectively for a minimum of 2 years. One hundred and eighteen patients (89%) attended an independent observer follow-up after a median of 47 (24–92) months. The time before participating in soccer was a median of 7 (5–24) months. At a median of 4 years, 80 (68%) were still active soccer players, while 38 had changed activity to a lower level. Twenty-five gave up soccer playing for reasons unrelated to the knee, and 13 (11%) gave up due to problems from the reconstructed knee. The Lysholm score improved from a median of 82 (range 42–99, mean [SD] 80.5 [±11.9]) points prior to the operation to a median of 99 (range 57–100, mean [SD] 94.6 [±8.5]) at follow-up. The Tegner score improved from a median of 3.5 (0–7) preoperatively to 9 (1–10). Four patients (3%) sustained a rupture of the graft: three ruptures occurred among the 15 females (20%), and one was seen among the 117 males (0.8%) (P=0.01). Eight per cent had predominantly minor cosmetic complaints from the donor-site hernia, while 51% had temporary discomfort from the staples used for graft fixation. Using the ITB autograft for ACL reconstruction, we found excellent and good results in soccer players with ACL deficiency and high demands for optimal knee function. The failure rate in general was comparable with other methods, and the majority was still active in soccer sports at a median of 4 years after surgery. An unacceptably high rerupture rate was registered in female players.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: During the 1993–1994 volleyball season, injuries to players in the two Danish elite divisions were registered by means of a questionnaire survey. Eighty per cent of the players returned the questionnaire. A total of 70 female players reported 79 injuries and 67 male players reported 98 injuries, representing an overall incidence of 3.8 injuries per player per 1000 volleyball hours played. The injury incidence was the same for female and male players. Most injuries occurred in spiking (32%) and in blocking (28%). The injuries were predominantly either acute injuries to fingers (21%) and ankles (18%) or overuse injuries to shoulders (15%) and knees (16%). Shoulder injuries seemed to be a more serious problem in females. During the past 10 years the rate of overuse injuries has increased from 16% to 47% in male elite volleyball, corresponding to a significant increase in the incidence of these injuries from 0.5 to 1.8 injuries per player per 1000 played hours (P〈0.001). A possible explanation for this could be a 50% increase in training activity during this period.
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