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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-11-03
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Motani, Ryosuke -- Jiang, Da-Yong -- Chen, Guan-Bao -- Tintori, Andrea -- Rieppel, Olivier -- Ji, Cheng -- Huang, Jian-Dong -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 26;527(7579):544. doi: 10.1038/nature15533. Epub 2015 Oct 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524534" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-11-11
    Description: The incompleteness of the fossil record obscures the origin of many of the more derived clades of vertebrates. One such group is the Ichthyopterygia, a clade of obligatory marine reptiles that appeared in the Early Triassic epoch, without any known intermediates. Here we describe a basal ichthyosauriform from the upper Lower Triassic (about 248 million years ago) of China, whose primitive skeleton indicates possible amphibious habits. It is smaller than ichthyopterygians and had unusually large flippers that probably allowed limited terrestrial locomotion. It also retained characteristics of terrestrial diapsid reptiles, including a short snout and body trunk. Unlike more-derived ichthyosauriforms, it was probably a suction feeder. The new species supports the sister-group relationships between ichthyosauriforms and Hupehsuchia, the two forming the Ichthyosauromorpha. Basal ichthyosauromorphs are known exclusively from south China, suggesting that the clade originated in the region, which formed a warm and humid tropical archipelago in the Early Triassic. The oldest unequivocal record of a sauropterygian is also from the same stratigraphic unit of the region.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Motani, Ryosuke -- Jiang, Da-Yong -- Chen, Guan-Bao -- Tintori, Andrea -- Rieppel, Olivier -- Ji, Cheng -- Huang, Jian-Dong -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jan 22;517(7535):485-8. doi: 10.1038/nature13866. Epub 2014 Nov 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA. ; 1] Laboratory of Orogenic Belt and Crustal Evolution, Ministry of Education, and Department of Geology and Geological Museum, Peking University, Yiheyuan Street 5, Beijing 100871, China [2] State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy (Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Science), Nanjing 210008, China. ; Department of Research, Anhui Geological Museum, Jiahe Road 999, Hefei, Anhui 230031, China. ; Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Mangiagalli, 34-20133 Milan, Italy. ; Center of Integrative Research, The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois 60605-2496, USA. ; Key Laboratory of Economic Stratigraphy and Palaeogeography, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 39 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25383536" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Structures/*anatomy & histology ; Animals ; China ; Fossils ; *Phylogeny ; Reptiles/*anatomy & histology/*classification ; Skull/anatomy & histology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Overcoming envelope metastability is crucial to trimer-based HIV-1 vaccine design. Here, we present a coherent vaccine strategy by minimizing metastability. For 10 strains across five clades, we demonstrate that the gp41 ectodomain (gp41 ECTO ) is the main source of envelope metastability by replacing wild-type gp41 ECTO with BG505 gp41 ECTO of the uncleaved prefusion-optimized (UFO) design. These gp41 ECTO -swapped trimers can be produced in CHO cells with high yield and high purity. The crystal structure of a gp41 ECTO -swapped trimer elucidates how a neutralization-resistant tier 3 virus evades antibody recognition of the V2 apex. UFO trimers of transmitted/founder viruses and UFO trimers containing a consensus-based ancestral gp41 ECTO suggest an evolutionary root of metastability. The gp41 ECTO -stabilized trimers can be readily displayed on 24- and 60-meric nanoparticles, with incorporation of additional T cell help illustrated for a hyperstable 60-mer, I3-01. In mice and rabbits, these gp140 nanoparticles induced tier 2 neutralizing antibody responses more effectively than soluble trimers.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-10-15
    Description: Periodic stripe patterns are ubiquitous in living organisms, yet the underlying developmental processes are complex and difficult to disentangle. We describe a synthetic genetic circuit that couples cell density and motility. This system enabled programmed Escherichia coli cells to form periodic stripes of high and low cell densities sequentially and autonomously. Theoretical and experimental analyses reveal that the spatial structure arises from a recurrent aggregation process at the front of the continuously expanding cell population. The number of stripes formed could be tuned by modulating the basal expression of a single gene. The results establish motility control as a simple route to establishing recurrent structures without requiring an extrinsic pacemaker.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Chenli -- Fu, Xiongfei -- Liu, Lizhong -- Ren, Xiaojing -- Chau, Carlos K L -- Li, Sihong -- Xiang, Lu -- Zeng, Hualing -- Chen, Guanhua -- Tang, Lei-Han -- Lenz, Peter -- Cui, Xiaodong -- Huang, Wei -- Hwa, Terence -- Huang, Jian-Dong -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Oct 14;334(6053):238-41. doi: 10.1126/science.1209042.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21998392" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acyl-Butyrolactones/metabolism ; Bacterial Load ; Cell Proliferation ; Culture Media ; Diffusion ; Escherichia coli K12/cytology/genetics/*growth & development/*physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Gene Regulatory Networks ; Kinetics ; Models, Biological ; Movement ; Quorum Sensing ; Synthetic Biology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: Purpose: Osimertinib is a third-generation inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor used in treatment of non–small cell lung cancer. A full understanding of its disposition and capacity for interaction with other medications will facilitate its effective use as a single agent and in combination therapy. Experimental Design: Recombinant cytochrome P450s and liver microsomal preparations were used to identify novel pathways of osimertinib metabolism in vitro . A panel of knockout and mouse lines humanized for pathways of drug metabolism were used to establish the relevance of these pathways in vivo . Results: Although some osimertinib metabolites were similar in mouse and human liver samples there were several significant differences, in particular a marked species difference in the P450s involved. The murine Cyp2d gene cluster played a predominant role in mouse, whereas CYP3A4 was the major human enzyme responsible for osimertinib metabolism. Induction of this enzyme in CYP3A4 humanized mice substantially decreased circulating osimertinib exposure. Importantly, we discovered a further novel pathway of osimertinib disposition involving CPY1A1. Modulation of CYP1A1/CYP1A2 levels markedly reduced parent drug concentrations, significantly altering metabolite pharmacokinetics (PK) in humanized mice in vivo . Conclusions: We demonstrate that a P450 enzyme expressed in smokers' lungs and lung tumors has the capacity to metabolise osimertinib. This could be a significant factor in defining the outcome of osimertinib treatment. This work also illustrates how P450-humanized mice can be used to identify and mitigate species differences in drug metabolism and thereby model the in vivo effect of critical metabolic pathways on anti-tumor response. Clin Cancer Res; 24(9); 2138–47. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: The use of potent therapies inhibiting critical oncogenic pathways active in epithelial cancers has led to multiple resistance mechanisms, including the development of highly aggressive, small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC). SCNC patients have a dismal prognosis due in part to a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving this malignancy and the lack of effective treatments. Here, we demonstrate that a common set of defined oncogenic drivers reproducibly reprograms normal human prostate and lung epithelial cells to small cell prostate cancer (SCPC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), respectively. We identify shared active transcription factor binding regions in the reprogrammed prostate and lung SCNCs by integrative analyses of epigenetic and transcriptional landscapes. These results suggest that neuroendocrine cancers arising from distinct epithelial tissues may share common vulnerabilities that could be exploited for the development of drugs targeting SCNCs.
    Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Momentum profiles of the valence orbitals of methylpropane, also known as isobutane (CH3CH(CH3)CH3), have been studied by using a high resolution binary (e,2e) electron momentum spectrometer (EMS), at an impact energy of 1200 eV plus the binding energy, and using symmetric noncoplanar kinematics. The coincidence energy resolution of the EMS spectrometer is 0.95 eV full width at half-maximum. The experimental momentum profiles of the valence orbitals are compared with the theoretical momentum distributions calculated using Hartree–Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) methods with the two basis sets of 6-31G and 6-311++G**. The B3LYP functionals are used for the DFT calculations. In general, the experimental momentum distributions are well described by the HF and DFT calculations. The pole strengths of the main ionization peaks from the orbitals in the inner valence are estimated. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser photoionization is combined with time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry to determine the photofragments produced from the laser photodissociation of allene and propyne in a molecular beam. Detection of C3H3+ confirms that atomic hydrogen elimination is the primary process for both of these molecules. A hydrogen molecule elimination channel and a low mass carbon fragmentation channel of allene to produce C3H2+H2 and CH2+C2H2, respectively, have also been identified. Different ratios of various dissociation channels from these two molecules suggest that the dissociation mechanisms of these two isomers are different. Dissociation must occur before complete isomerization. These results are discussed in terms of recent theoretical calculations on the ground and excited states of these molecules. Secondary photodissociation of the products has been observed, even though the laser energies that have been used are less than 8 mJ/cm2 and the photolysis laser is not focused. Therefore, the present results show how important it is to determine product distributions as a function of the laser energy. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Phenytoin ; Carbamazepine ; drug interaction pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A three-phase trial has been done in 11 volunteers. They were given 600 mg phenytoin (Dilantin capsules) in each phase after an overnight fast. In the first study, phenytoin was given alone. In the second phase 400 mg carbamazepine (CBZ) was given at the same time as the phenytoin, and in the third part, 200 mg CBZ t. d. s. was given for one week prior to the phenytoin. Blood samples were taken for 72 h in each phase. Plasma levels of phenytoin and CBZ were determined by HPLC, and plasma protein binding was determined by equilibrium dialysis. The unbound fraction of phenytoin was 0.082, 0.085, and 0.077 in the control, single-dose CBZ, multi-dose CBZ phases, respectively. Single and multiple doses of CBZ decreased the plasma level of phenytoin. The 72-h AUC of phenytoin was 276, 237, and 176 mg h·l−1 in the 3 phases, respectively, and the 72-h AUC of unbound phenytoin was 22.8, 20.5, 13.0 mg h·l−1. The AUC of phenytoin (unbound and total) after multiple doses of CBZ was significantly lower than in the other two phases. The apparent volume of distribution (Vz/f) was 89.9, 110.3, and 121.3 l in the 3 phases, respectively. Through pharmacokinetic analyses, the decreased AUC and increased Vz/f were attributed to decreased bioavailability of phenytoin when CBZ was co-administered.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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