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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-30
    Description: Although thousands of large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified in mammals, few have been functionally characterized, leading to debate about their biological role. To address this, we performed loss-of-function studies on most lincRNAs expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and characterized the effects on gene expression. Here we show that knockdown of lincRNAs has major consequences on gene expression patterns, comparable to knockdown of well-known ES cell regulators. Notably, lincRNAs primarily affect gene expression in trans. Knockdown of dozens of lincRNAs causes either exit from the pluripotent state or upregulation of lineage commitment programs. We integrate lincRNAs into the molecular circuitry of ES cells and show that lincRNA genes are regulated by key transcription factors and that lincRNA transcripts bind to multiple chromatin regulatory proteins to affect shared gene expression programs. Together, the results demonstrate that lincRNAs have key roles in the circuitry controlling ES cell state.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3175327/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3175327/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Guttman, Mitchell -- Donaghey, Julie -- Carey, Bryce W -- Garber, Manuel -- Grenier, Jennifer K -- Munson, Glen -- Young, Geneva -- Lucas, Anne Bergstrom -- Ach, Robert -- Bruhn, Laurakay -- Yang, Xiaoping -- Amit, Ido -- Meissner, Alexander -- Regev, Aviv -- Rinn, John L -- Root, David E -- Lander, Eric S -- U54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067-09/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 28;477(7364):295-300. doi: 10.1038/nature10398.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. mguttman@mit.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21874018" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation/*genetics ; Cell Lineage/genetics ; Chromatin/genetics/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Mice ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Protein Binding ; RNA, Untranslated/*genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-09
    Description: DNA methylation is a defining feature of mammalian cellular identity and is essential for normal development. Most cell types, except germ cells and pre-implantation embryos, display relatively stable DNA methylation patterns, with 70-80% of all CpGs being methylated. Despite recent advances, we still have a limited understanding of when, where and how many CpGs participate in genomic regulation. Here we report the in-depth analysis of 42 whole-genome bisulphite sequencing data sets across 30 diverse human cell and tissue types. We observe dynamic regulation for only 21.8% of autosomal CpGs within a normal developmental context, most of which are distal to transcription start sites. These dynamic CpGs co-localize with gene regulatory elements, particularly enhancers and transcription-factor-binding sites, which allow identification of key lineage-specific regulators. In addition, differentially methylated regions (DMRs) often contain single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with cell-type-related diseases as determined by genome-wide association studies. The results also highlight the general inefficiency of whole-genome bisulphite sequencing, as 70-80% of the sequencing reads across these data sets provided little or no relevant information about CpG methylation. To demonstrate further the utility of our DMR set, we use it to classify unknown samples and identify representative signature regions that recapitulate major DNA methylation dynamics. In summary, although in theory every CpG can change its methylation state, our results suggest that only a fraction does so as part of coordinated regulatory programs. Therefore, our selected DMRs can serve as a starting point to guide new, more effective reduced representation approaches to capture the most informative fraction of CpGs, as well as further pinpoint putative regulatory elements.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3821869/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3821869/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ziller, Michael J -- Gu, Hongcang -- Muller, Fabian -- Donaghey, Julie -- Tsai, Linus T-Y -- Kohlbacher, Oliver -- De Jager, Philip L -- Rosen, Evan D -- Bennett, David A -- Bernstein, Bradley E -- Gnirke, Andreas -- Meissner, Alexander -- ES017690/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P01 GM099117/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01GM099117/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30AG10161/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG017917/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01AG15819/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01AG17917/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01AG36042/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017155/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- U01ES017155/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 22;500(7463):477-81. doi: 10.1038/nature12433. Epub 2013 Aug 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23925113" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; CpG Islands/genetics ; *DNA Methylation ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Organ Specificity ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sulfites/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-02-20
    Description: Pluripotent stem cells provide a powerful system to dissect the underlying molecular dynamics that regulate cell fate changes during mammalian development. Here we report the integrative analysis of genome-wide binding data for 38 transcription factors with extensive epigenome and transcriptional data across the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to the three germ layers. We describe core regulatory dynamics and show the lineage-specific behaviour of selected factors. In addition to the orchestrated remodelling of the chromatin landscape, we find that the binding of several transcription factors is strongly associated with specific loss of DNA methylation in one germ layer, and in many cases a reciprocal gain in the other layers. Taken together, our work shows context-dependent rewiring of transcription factor binding, downstream signalling effectors, and the epigenome during human embryonic stem cell differentiation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4499331/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4499331/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tsankov, Alexander M -- Gu, Hongcang -- Akopian, Veronika -- Ziller, Michael J -- Donaghey, Julie -- Amit, Ido -- Gnirke, Andreas -- Meissner, Alexander -- 5F32DK095537/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01 GM099117/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01GM099117/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50HG006193/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017155/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- U01ES017155/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 19;518(7539):344-9. doi: 10.1038/nature14233.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA [3] Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA [2] Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; 1] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot, 76100 Israel.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25693565" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Cell Differentiation/genetics ; Cell Lineage ; Chromatin/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/genetics ; DNA Methylation ; Embryonic Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics ; Epigenomics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Germ Layers/cytology/metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Protein Binding ; Signal Transduction ; Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-12-24
    Description: Models derived from human pluripotent stem cells that accurately recapitulate neural development in vitro and allow for the generation of specific neuronal subtypes are of major interest to the stem cell and biomedical community. Notch signalling, particularly through the Notch effector HES5, is a major pathway critical for the onset and maintenance of neural progenitor cells in the embryonic and adult nervous system. Here we report the transcriptional and epigenomic analysis of six consecutive neural progenitor cell stages derived from a HES5::eGFP reporter human embryonic stem cell line. Using this system, we aimed to model cell-fate decisions including specification, expansion and patterning during the ontogeny of cortical neural stem and progenitor cells. In order to dissect regulatory mechanisms that orchestrate the stage-specific differentiation process, we developed a computational framework to infer key regulators of each cell-state transition based on the progressive remodelling of the epigenetic landscape and then validated these through a pooled short hairpin RNA screen. We were also able to refine our previous observations on epigenetic priming at transcription factor binding sites and suggest here that they are mediated by combinations of core and stage-specific factors. Taken together, we demonstrate the utility of our system and outline a general framework, not limited to the context of the neural lineage, to dissect regulatory circuits of differentiation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4336237/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4336237/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ziller, Michael J -- Edri, Reuven -- Yaffe, Yakey -- Donaghey, Julie -- Pop, Ramona -- Mallard, William -- Issner, Robbyn -- Gifford, Casey A -- Goren, Alon -- Xing, Jeffrey -- Gu, Hongcang -- Cacchiarelli, Davide -- Tsankov, Alexander M -- Epstein, Charles -- Rinn, John L -- Mikkelsen, Tarjei S -- Kohlbacher, Oliver -- Gnirke, Andreas -- Bernstein, Bradley E -- Elkabetz, Yechiel -- Meissner, Alexander -- F32 DK095537/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HG006911/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P01 GM099117/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01GM099117/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017155/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- U01ES017155/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG006991/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 19;518(7539):355-9. doi: 10.1038/nature13990. Epub 2014 Dec 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA [3] Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 6997801, Israel. ; 1] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA [3] Center for Systems Biology and Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Applied Bioinformatics, Center for Bioinformatics and Quantitative Biology Center, University of Tubingen, Tubingen 72076, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25533951" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Cell Differentiation/*genetics ; Cell Lineage/genetics ; Embryonic Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; Epigenomics/*methods ; Humans ; Neural Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; RNA, Small Interfering/analysis/genetics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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