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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-03-01
    Description: The human X and Y chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes during the past 200-300 million years. The human MSY (male-specific region of Y chromosome) retains only three percent of the ancestral autosomes' genes owing to genetic decay. This evolutionary decay was driven by a series of five 'stratification' events. Each event suppressed X-Y crossing over within a chromosome segment or 'stratum', incorporated that segment into the MSY and subjected its genes to the erosive forces that attend the absence of crossing over. The last of these events occurred 30 million years ago, 5 million years before the human and Old World monkey lineages diverged. Although speculation abounds regarding ongoing decay and looming extinction of the human Y chromosome, remarkably little is known about how many MSY genes were lost in the human lineage in the 25 million years that have followed its separation from the Old World monkey lineage. To investigate this question, we sequenced the MSY of the rhesus macaque, an Old World monkey, and compared it to the human MSY. We discovered that during the last 25 million years MSY gene loss in the human lineage was limited to the youngest stratum (stratum 5), which comprises three percent of the human MSY. In the older strata, which collectively comprise the bulk of the human MSY, gene loss evidently ceased more than 25 million years ago. Likewise, the rhesus MSY has not lost any older genes (from strata 1-4) during the past 25 million years, despite its major structural differences to the human MSY. The rhesus MSY is simpler, with few amplified gene families or palindromes that might enable intrachromosomal recombination and repair. We present an empirical reconstruction of human MSY evolution in which each stratum transitioned from rapid, exponential loss of ancestral genes to strict conservation through purifying selection.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292678/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292678/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hughes, Jennifer F -- Skaletsky, Helen -- Brown, Laura G -- Pyntikova, Tatyana -- Graves, Tina -- Fulton, Robert S -- Dugan, Shannon -- Ding, Yan -- Buhay, Christian J -- Kremitzki, Colin -- Wang, Qiaoyan -- Shen, Hua -- Holder, Michael -- Villasana, Donna -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Cree, Andrew -- Courtney, Laura -- Veizer, Joelle -- Kotkiewicz, Holland -- Cho, Ting-Jan -- Koutseva, Natalia -- Rozen, Steve -- Muzny, Donna M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Wilson, Richard K -- Page, David C -- R01 HG000257/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG000257-17/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 22;483(7387):82-6. doi: 10.1038/nature10843.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. jhughes@wi.mit.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367542" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromosomes, Human, Y/*genetics ; Conserved Sequence/*genetics ; Crossing Over, Genetic/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Amplification/genetics ; *Gene Deletion ; Humans ; In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ; Macaca mulatta/*genetics ; Male ; Models, Genetic ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Radiation Hybrid Mapping ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Time Factors ; Y Chromosome/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-04-25
    Description: The human X and Y chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes, but millions of years ago genetic decay ravaged the Y chromosome, and only three per cent of its ancestral genes survived. We reconstructed the evolution of the Y chromosome across eight mammals to identify biases in gene content and the selective pressures that preserved the surviving ancestral genes. Our findings indicate that survival was nonrandom, and in two cases, convergent across placental and marsupial mammals. We conclude that the gene content of the Y chromosome became specialized through selection to maintain the ancestral dosage of homologous X-Y gene pairs that function as broadly expressed regulators of transcription, translation and protein stability. We propose that beyond its roles in testis determination and spermatogenesis, the Y chromosome is essential for male viability, and has unappreciated roles in Turner's syndrome and in phenotypic differences between the sexes in health and disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139287/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139287/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bellott, Daniel W -- Hughes, Jennifer F -- Skaletsky, Helen -- Brown, Laura G -- Pyntikova, Tatyana -- Cho, Ting-Jan -- Koutseva, Natalia -- Zaghlul, Sara -- Graves, Tina -- Rock, Susie -- Kremitzki, Colin -- Fulton, Robert S -- Dugan, Shannon -- Ding, Yan -- Morton, Donna -- Khan, Ziad -- Lewis, Lora -- Buhay, Christian -- Wang, Qiaoyan -- Watt, Jennifer -- Holder, Michael -- Lee, Sandy -- Nazareth, Lynne -- Alfoldi, Jessica -- Rozen, Steve -- Muzny, Donna M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Wilson, Richard K -- Page, David C -- P51 RR013986/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 24;508(7497):494-9. doi: 10.1038/nature13206.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, & Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; The Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24759411" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Y/genetics ; Disease ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Dosage/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Health ; Humans ; Male ; Mammals/*genetics ; Marsupialia/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Biosynthesis/genetics ; Protein Stability ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Sequence Homology ; Sex Characteristics ; Spermatogenesis/genetics ; Testis/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics ; Turner Syndrome/genetics ; X Chromosome/genetics ; Y Chromosome/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 205 (1965), S. 830-830 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A series of experiments has been made in the greenhouse on young plants of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. calabrica Loud.), Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis Murr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), up to 4 years of age, to determine the pattern of water ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 235 (1972), S. 381-383 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] It is not yet known, however, whether this electric field is a potential hazard in the cleaning of tankers. With the abundance of earthed protrusions (for example, walkways, stairways, strengthening structures) within the cargo tanks and the gun cleaning nozzle penetrating 5 m below deck level, ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Reduction of house dust mite allergens in the domestic environment can play an important part in reducing sensitization and in the amelioration of symptoms in atopic individuals. Chemical and physical methods have been tried with varied levels of success. The present paper presents a novel electrostatic way of destroying Der p 1, the major mite allergen.Objective  To assess the efficacy of negative Trichel, negative continuous glow, positive pulse and positive continuous glow corona in destroying Der p 1. To determine whether ozone has any effect on the integrity of Der p 1 in the experimental conditions present.Methods  A simple point-to-plane apparatus was used to irradiate samples of Der p 1 for periods of 1, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min. Controls were exposed to the atmosphere with no corona products present for the equivalent time. The effect of the corona by-product ozone was investigated alone by exposing samples of Der p 1 to molecular ozone for 60 min. Der p 1 concentration was quantified by two-site monoclonal antibody ELISA.Results  High current negative glow resulted in a 67.37% reduction in Der p 1 concentration after 300 min compared with a 50.5% reduction from a low current Trichel regime. High current positive glow corona gave a reduction of 25.22% while a low current positive pulse corona caused a 13.72% reduction after 300 min. All these reductions were statistically significant (P 〈 0.05) compared with unexposed controls. Negative corona always gave greater percentage reductions in Der p 1 concentration for each time exposure investigated. The pattern of percentage reduction follows an exponential rise to maximum relationship in respect to time. Samples of Der p 1 were not affected by exposure to molecular ozone.Conclusion  These data indicate corona products to be a powerful new method of destroying Der p 1 allergen that is not dependent on the presence of the oxidizing corona product ozone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background To reduce the risk of sensitization and the elicitation of allergy symptoms, it is important to reduce the level of allergens in the home. It has previously been demonstrated that corona discharge, the process by which ionizers produce ions, can destroy the major house dust mite allergen Der p 1.Objective In this paper the denaturing efficacy of an experimental ionizer and two commercially available products are evaluated.Methods The first test was conducted in an electrically grounded chamber with samples of Der p 1 placed in various positions for 1, 2 and 3 weeks. The second test was conducted in situ in an unoccupied, furnished office room for 1 week. Der p 1 concentration was quantified by two-site monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results All ionizers in both tests caused significant reductions in allergen concentration (P 〈 0.05), reaching a maximum of 92% with the experimental ionizer in the chamber after 3 weeks. The percentage reductions observed in situ with the experimental and the larger commercial ionizer were similar, reaching a maximum of 32% at a distance of 4 m away from the experimental ionizer after 1 week of exposure.Conclusion With a revised protocol for use, air ionizers may offer a simple, efficient and inexpensive way to reduce allergen levels in the domestic environment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Background Irish Travellers are an endogamous, nomadic, ethnic minority population mostly resident on the island of Ireland with smaller populations in Europe and the USA. High levels of consanguinity result in many rare autosomal recessive disorders. Due to founder effects and endogamy, most recessive disorders are caused by specific homozygous mutations unique to this population. Key clinicians and scientists with experience in managing rare disorders seen in this population have developed a de facto advisory service on differential diagnoses to consider when faced with specific clinical scenarios. Objective(s) To catalogue all known inherited disorders found in the Irish Traveller population. Methods We performed detailed literature and database searches to identify relevant publications and the disease mutations of known genetic disorders found in Irish Travellers. Results We identified 104 genetic disorders: 90 inherited in an autosomal recessive manner; 13 autosomal dominant and one a recurring chromosomal duplication. Conclusion We have collated our experience of inherited disorders found in the Irish Traveller population to make it publically available through this publication to facilitate a targeted genetic approach to diagnostics in this ethnic group.
    Print ISSN: 0022-2593
    Electronic ISSN: 1468-6244
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing Group
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