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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; GENOME ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; DESIGN ; genetics ; etiology ; CHILDREN ; acute lymphoblastic leukemia ; HAPLOTYPE ; prenatal origin ; PREGNANCY ; CONSORTIUM ; RACIAL-DIFFERENCES
    Abstract: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the major pediatric cancer in developed countries. To date most association studies of acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been based on the candidate gene approach and have evaluated a restricted number of polymorphisms. Such studies have served to highlight difficulties in conducting statistically and methodologically rigorous investigations into acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Recent genome-wide association studies of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia have provided robust evidence that common variation at four genetic loci confers a modest increase in risk. The accumulated experience to date and relative lack of success of initial efforts to identify novel acute lymphoblastic leukemia predisposition loci emphasize the need for alternative study designs and methods. The International Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Genetics Consortium includes 12 research groups in Europe, Asia, the Middle East and the Americas engaged in studying the genetics of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The initial goal of this consortium is to identify and characterize low-penetrance susceptibility variants for acute lymphoblastic leukemia through association-based analyses. Efforts to develop genome-wide association studies of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, in terms of both sample size and single nucleotide polymorphism coverage, and to increase the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms taken forward to large-scale replication should lead to the identification of additional novel risk variants for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ethnic differences in the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are well recognized and thus in assessing the interplay between inherited and non-genetic risk factors, analyses using different population cohorts with different incidence rates are likely to be highly informative. Given that the frequency of many acute lymphoblastic leukemia subgroups is small, identifying differential effects will realistically only be possible through multi-center pooled analyses. Here, we review the rationale for identifying genetic risk variants for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and our proposed strategy for establishing the International Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Genetics Consortium
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21459794
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-02-05
    Description: Solvent collisions can often mask initial disposition of energy to the products of solution-phase chemical reactions. Here, we show with transient infrared absorption spectra obtained with picosecond time resolution that the nascent HCN products of reaction of CN radicals with cyclohexane in chlorinated organic solvents exhibit preferential excitation of one quantum of the C-H stretching mode and up to two quanta of the bending mode. On time scales of approximately 100 to 300 picoseconds, the HCN products undergo relaxation to the vibrational ground state by coupling to the solvent bath. Comparison with reactions of CN radicals with alkanes in the gas phase, known to produce HCN with greater C-H stretch and bending mode excitation (up to two and approximately six quanta, respectively), indicates partial damping of the nascent product vibrational motion by the solvent. The transient infrared spectra therefore probe solvent-induced modifications to the reaction free energy surface and chemical dynamics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Greaves, Stuart J -- Rose, Rebecca A -- Oliver, Thomas A A -- Glowacki, David R -- Ashfold, Michael N R -- Harvey, Jeremy N -- Clark, Ian P -- Greetham, Gregory M -- Parker, Anthony W -- Towrie, Michael -- Orr-Ewing, Andrew J -- ST/501784/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Mar 18;331(6023):1423-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1197796. Epub 2011 Feb 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21292937" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chemical Phenomena ; Cyclohexanes/*chemistry ; Free Radicals ; Hydrogen/*chemistry ; Hydrogen Cyanide/*chemistry ; Kinetics ; Models, Chemical ; Physicochemical Processes ; Solutions ; Solvents/chemistry ; Spectrophotometry, Infrared
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-10-06
    Description: Some planetary systems harbour debris disks containing planetesimals such as asteroids and comets. Collisions between such bodies produce small dust particles, the spectral features of which reveal their composition and, hence, that of their parent bodies. A measurement of the composition of olivine crystals (Mg(2-2x)Fe(2x)SiO(4)) has been done for the protoplanetary disk HD 100546 (refs 3, 4) and for olivine crystals in the warm inner parts of planetary systems. The latter compares well with the iron-rich olivine in asteroids (x approximately 0.29). In the cold outskirts of the beta Pictoris system, an analogue to the young Solar System, olivine crystals were detected but their composition remained undetermined, leaving unknown how the composition of the bulk of Solar System cometary olivine grains compares with that of extrasolar comets. Here we report the detection of the 69-micrometre-wavelength band of olivine crystals in the spectrum of beta Pictoris. Because the disk is optically thin, we can associate the crystals with an extrasolar proto-Kuiper belt a distance of 15-45 astronomical units from the star (one astronomical unit is the Sun-Earth distance), determine their magnesium-rich composition (x = 0.01 +/- 0.001) and show that they make up 3.6 +/- 1.0 per cent of the total dust mass. These values are strikingly similar to those for the dust emitted by the most primitive comets in the Solar System, even though beta Pictoris is more massive and more luminous and has a different planetary system architecture.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉de Vries, B L -- Acke, B -- Blommaert, J A D L -- Waelkens, C -- Waters, L B F M -- Vandenbussche, B -- Min, M -- Olofsson, G -- Dominik, C -- Decin, L -- Barlow, M J -- Brandeker, A -- Di Francesco, J -- Glauser, A M -- Greaves, J -- Harvey, P M -- Holland, W S -- Ivison, R J -- Liseau, R -- Pantin, E E -- Pilbratt, G L -- Royer, P -- Sibthorpe, B -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 4;490(7418):74-6. doi: 10.1038/nature11469.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium. bldevries.science@gmail.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23038467" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2012-07-07
    Description: It is not known whether brown dwarfs [stellar-like objects with masses less than the hydrogen-burning limit, 0.075 solar mass (M)[symbol:see text]] are formed in the same way as solar-type stars or by some other process. Here we report the clear-cut identification of a self-gravitating condensation of gas and dust with a mass in the brown-dwarf regime, made through millimeter interferometric observations. The level of thermal millimeter continuum emission detected from this object indicates a mass ~0.02 to 0.03 M[symbol:see text], whereas the small radius, 〈460 astronomical units, and narrow spectral lines imply a dynamical mass of 0.015 to 0.02 M[symbol:see text]. The identification of such a pre-brown dwarf core supports models according to which brown dwarfs are formed in the same manner as hydrogen-burning stars.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Andre, Philippe -- Ward-Thompson, Derek -- Greaves, Jane -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jul 6;337(6090):69-72. doi: 10.1126/science.1222602.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, Instrumentation et Modelisation (AIM), Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)/Direction des Sciences de la Matiere (DSM)-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. philippe.andre@cea.fr〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22767923" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-01-31
    Description: Solvent-solute interactions influence the mechanisms of chemical reactions in solution, but the response of the solvent is often slower than the reactive event. Here, we report that exothermic reactions of fluorine (F) atoms in d3-acetonitrile and d2-dichloromethane involve efficient energy flow to vibrational motion of the deuterium fluoride (DF) product that competes with dissipation of the energy to the solvent bath, despite strong solvent coupling. Transient infrared absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations show that after DF forms its first hydrogen bond on a subpicosecond time scale, DF vibrational relaxation and further solvent restructuring occur over more than 10 picoseconds. Characteristic dynamics of gas-phase F-atom reactions with hydrogen-containing molecules persist in polar organic solvents, and the spectral evolution of the DF products serves as a probe of solvent reorganization induced by a chemical reaction.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dunning, G T -- Glowacki, D R -- Preston, T J -- Greaves, S J -- Greetham, G M -- Clark, I P -- Towrie, M -- Harvey, J N -- Orr-Ewing, A J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 30;347(6221):530-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa0103.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol BS8 1TS, UK. ; School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol BS8 1TS, UK. Department of Computer Science, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UB, UK. Photon Ultrafast Laser Science and Engineering (PULSE) Institute and Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. a.orr-ewing@bristol.ac.uk drglowacki@gmail.com. ; School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK. ; Central Laser Facility, Research Complex at Harwell, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX, UK. ; School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol BS8 1TS, UK. a.orr-ewing@bristol.ac.uk drglowacki@gmail.com.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25635095" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0747-5632
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Computer Science , Medicine , Psychology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 219 (1968), S. 402-403 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Table l. MORTALITY AND AVERAGE TIME OP ONSET OF ATAXIA IN MICE ADMINISTERED PURE AND ETHYLCELLULOSE-ENCAPSULATED ALPHACHLORALOSE Average time of onset of ataxia (min after dosing) Mortality Dose Pure Encapsulated Pure Encapsulated (mg/kg) alpha- alpha- alpha- alphachloralose chloralose ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Magnetic fields may play an important role in the star-formation process, especially in the central regions of ‘starburst’ galaxies where star formation is vigorous. But the field directions are very difficult to determine in the dense molecular gas out of which the stars form, ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial & engineering chemistry 11 (1919), S. 451-454 
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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