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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Human intestinal organoids (hIOs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have immense potential as a source of intestines. Therefore, an efficient system is needed for visualizing the stage of intestinal differentiation and further identifying hIOs derived from hPSCs. Here, 2 fluorescent biosensors were developed based on human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines that stably expressed fluorescent reporters driven by intestine-specific gene promoters Krüppel-like factor 5 monomeric Cherry (KLF5 mCherry ) and intestine-specific homeobox enhanced green fluorescence protein (ISX eGFP ). Then hIOs were efficiently induced from those transgenic hiPSC lines in which mCherry– or eGFP–expressing cells, which appeared during differentiation, could be identified in intact living cells in real time. Reporter gene expression had no adverse effects on differentiation into hIOs and proliferation. Using our reporter system to screen for hIO differentiation factors, we identified DMH1 as an efficient substitute for Noggin. Transplanted hIOs under the kidney capsule were tracked with fluorescence imaging (FLI) and confirmed histologically. After orthotopic transplantation, the localization of the hIOs in the small intestine could be accurately visualized using FLI. Our study establishes a selective system for monitoring the in vitro differentiation and for tracking the in vivo localization of hIOs and contributes to further improvement of cell-based therapies and preclinical screenings in the intestinal field.—Jung, K. B., Lee, H., Son, Y. S., Lee, J. H., Cho, H.-S., Lee, M.-O., Oh, J.-H., Lee, J., Kim, S., Jung, C.-R., Kim, J., Son, M.-Y. In vitro and in vivo imaging and tracking of intestinal organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells.
    Print ISSN: 0892-6638
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-6860
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Purpose: We profiled circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to study the biology of blood-borne metastasis and to monitor biomarker status in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Methods: CTCs were isolated from 105 patients with MBC using EPCAM-based immunomagnetic enrichment and fluorescence-activated cells sorting (IE/FACS), 28 of whom had serial CTC analysis (74 samples, 2–5 time points). CTCs were subjected to microfluidic-based multiplex QPCR array of 64 cancer-related genes ( n = 151) and genome-wide copy-number analysis by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH; n = 49). Results: Combined transcriptional and genomic profiling showed that CTCs were 26% ESR1 – ERBB2 – , 48% ESR1 + ERBB2 – , and 27% ERBB2 + . Serial testing showed that ERBB2 status was more stable over time compared with ESR1 and proliferation ( MKI67 ) status. While cell-to-cell heterogeneity was observed at the single-cell level, with increasingly stable expression in larger pools, patient-specific CTC expression "fingerprints" were also observed. CTC copy-number profiles clustered into three groups based on the extent of genomic aberrations and the presence of large chromosomal imbalances. Comparative analysis showed discordance in ESR1 /ER (27%) and ERBB2 /HER2 (23%) status between CTCs and matched primary tumors. CTCs in 65% of the patients were considered to have low proliferation potential. Patients who harbored CTCs with high proliferation ( MKI67 ) status had significantly reduced progression-free survival ( P = 0.0011) and overall survival ( P = 0.0095) compared with patients with low proliferative CTCs. Conclusions: We demonstrate an approach for complete isolation of EPCAM-positive CTCs and downstream comprehensive transcriptional/genomic characterization to examine the biology and assess breast cancer biomarkers in these cells over time. Clin Cancer Res; 24(6); 1486–99. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: Background: Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with a poor prognosis. This study was set up to investigate the combined effect of gemcitabine and fisetin, a natural flavonoid from plants, on human pancreatic cancer cells. Meterials and Methods: Cytotoxic effect of fisetin in combination with gemcitabine on MiaPaca-2 cells was evaluated by the MTT assay, caspase 3/7 assay and propidium iodide/Annexin V. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) pathway was investigated by western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Combination treatment with fisetin and gemcitabine inhibited the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells within 72 h and induced apoptosis, as indicated by activation of caspase 3/7. Fisetin down-regulated ERK at the protein and mRNA levels, and reduced ERK-induced MYC instability at the protein level. Conclusion: Fisetin sensitized human pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine-induced cytotoxicity through inhibition of ERK-MYC signaling. These results suggest that the combination of fisetin and gemcitabine could be developed as a novel potent therapeutic.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Generation of a multi-antigen-directed immune response for durable control of acute lymphoblastic leukemia Generation of a multi-antigen-directed immune response for durable control of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Published online: 05 January 2018; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.312 Generation of a multi-antigen-directed immune response for durable control of acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    Print ISSN: 0887-6924
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5551
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-01-14
    Description: The Hippo signaling pathway, which is highly conserved in organisms ranging from Drosophila to mammals, plays a key role in organ size control, cellular proliferation, survival and tumorigenesis 1 Yes-associated protein (YAP) is the major downstream effector of Hippo signaling pathway and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) is a YAP paralog. Recently, Zhang et al . found that YAP/TAZ acts as natural inhibitors of TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which is a key component for cytosolic nucleic acid sensing antiviral defense and antiviral physiology 2 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0007-0963
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2133
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Background/Aim: Melatonin, an endogenously secreted indoleamine hormone that is produced in the pineal gland, is known to possess antitumor effect via various mechanisms including induction of apoptosis and pro-oxidant effects in various cancer cells, including colorectal cancer (CRC). In our study, we hypothesized that melatonin enhances the anticancer effects via suppression of PrP C and PINK1 levels, thereby increasing superoxide production. Materials and Methods: To investigate the antitumor effects of melatonin in CRC cells, assessing its effects on mitochondrial dysfunction, production of superoxide, induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and cellular apoptosis were assessed. Results: Melatonin was found to decrease the expression of PrP C and PINK1, and increase superoxide accumulation in the mitochondria. In addition, PrP C -knockdown potentiated the effects of melatonin resulting further in significantly reduced expression of PINK1 and increased superoxide production in CRC. si-PRNP-transfected CRC cells treated with melatonin increased the production of intracellular superoxide and induced endoplasmic reticulum stress associated protein, and apoptosis. Conclusion: Melatonin induces mitochondria-mediated cellular apoptosis in CRC cancer cells via a PrP C -dependent pathway. PrP C knockdown combined with melatonin amplifies the effects of melatonin, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy in targeting CRC cells.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: Recent advances in wearable electronics combined with wireless communications are essential to the realization of medical applications through health monitoring technologies. For example, a smart contact lens, which is capable of monitoring the physiological information of the eye and tear fluid, could provide real-time, noninvasive medical diagnostics. However, previous reports concerning the smart contact lens have indicated that opaque and brittle components have been used to enable the operation of the electronic device, and this could block the user’s vision and potentially damage the eye. In addition, the use of expensive and bulky equipment to measure signals from the contact lens sensors could interfere with the user’s external activities. Thus, we report an unconventional approach for the fabrication of a soft, smart contact lens in which glucose sensors, wireless power transfer circuits, and display pixels to visualize sensing signals in real time are fully integrated using transparent and stretchable nanostructures. The integration of this display into the smart lens eliminates the need for additional, bulky measurement equipment. This soft, smart contact lens can be transparent, providing a clear view by matching the refractive indices of its locally patterned areas. The resulting soft, smart contact lens provides real-time, wireless operation, and there are in vivo tests to monitor the glucose concentration in tears (suitable for determining the fasting glucose level in the tears of diabetic patients) and, simultaneously, to provide sensing results through the contact lens display.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: Background/Aim: High-carbohydrate diets are generally provided to post-pancreatectomy cancer patients. Low energy density of this diet may obstruct proper energy intake and recovery. This study aimed to assess the effects of high-fat, high-energy ketogenic diet (KD) in these patients. Patients and Methods: After pancreatectomy, 9 patients were provided with general diet (GD) while 10 were served KD. Meal compliance, energy intake rate, meal satisfaction and presence of complications were monitored throughout hospital stay. Data on nutritional status, serum lipids and body composition were collected and compared between groups. Results: Meal compliance, energy intake rate and meal satisfaction score were higher in KD. There were no differences in complications, nutritional status and serum lipids. The decrease in body cell mass (BCM) was greater in GD. Conclusion: Post-pancreatectomy cancer patients who consumed KD had a higher energy intake and BCM. These results suggest the potential use of KD as an adjuvant anti-cancer therapy.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: Connexin 43 (Cx43) deficiency was found to increase mortality in a mouse model of bacterial peritonitis, and Cx43 is upregulated in macrophages by LPS treatment. In this study, we characterized a novel signaling pathway for LPS-induced Cx43 expression in RAW264.7 cells and thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages (TGEMs). LPS alone or LPS-containing conditioned medium (CM) upregulated Cx43. Overexpression or silencing of Cx43 led to the enhancement or inhibition, respectively, of CM-induced TGEM migration. This response involved the inducible NO synthase (iNOS)/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Src pathways. Moreover, CM-induced migration was compromised in TGEMs from Cx43 +/– mice compared with TGEMs from Cx43 +/+ littermates. Cx43 was upregulated by a serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK) activator and downregulated, along with inhibition of CM-induced TGEM migration, by knockdown of the SGK gene or blockade of the SGK pathway. LPS-induced SGK activation was abrogated by Torin2, whereas LPS-induced Cx43 was downregulated by both Torin2 and rapamycin. Analysis of the effects of FK506 and methylprednisolone, common immunosuppressive agents following organ transplantation, suggested a link between these immunosuppressive drugs and impaired macrophage migration via the Cx43/iNOS/Src/FAK pathway. In a model of Escherichia coli infectious peritonitis, GSK650349-, an SGK inhibitor, or Torin2-treated mice showed less accumulation of F4/80 + CD11b + macrophages in the peritoneal cavity, with a delay in the elimination of bacteria. Furthermore, following pretreatment with Gap19, a selective Cx43 hemichannel blocker, the survival of model mice was significantly reduced. Taken together, our study suggested that Cx43 in macrophages was associated with macrophage migration, an important immune process in host defense to infection.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-03-04
    Description: Defined transcription factors can induce epigenetic reprogramming of adult mammalian cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Although DNA factors are integrated during some reprogramming methods, it is unknown whether the genome remains unchanged at the single nucleotide level. Here we show that 22 human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cell lines reprogrammed using five different methods each contained an average of five protein-coding point mutations in the regions sampled (an estimated six protein-coding point mutations per exome). The majority of these mutations were non-synonymous, nonsense or splice variants, and were enriched in genes mutated or having causative effects in cancers. At least half of these reprogramming-associated mutations pre-existed in fibroblast progenitors at low frequencies, whereas the rest occurred during or after reprogramming. Thus, hiPS cells acquire genetic modifications in addition to epigenetic modifications. Extensive genetic screening should become a standard procedure to ensure hiPS cell safety before clinical use.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3074107/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3074107/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gore, Athurva -- Li, Zhe -- Fung, Ho-Lim -- Young, Jessica E -- Agarwal, Suneet -- Antosiewicz-Bourget, Jessica -- Canto, Isabel -- Giorgetti, Alessandra -- Israel, Mason A -- Kiskinis, Evangelos -- Lee, Je-Hyuk -- Loh, Yuin-Han -- Manos, Philip D -- Montserrat, Nuria -- Panopoulos, Athanasia D -- Ruiz, Sergio -- Wilbert, Melissa L -- Yu, Junying -- Kirkness, Ewen F -- Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos -- Rossi, Derrick J -- Thomson, James A -- Eggan, Kevin -- Daley, George Q -- Goldstein, Lawrence S B -- Zhang, Kun -- K08 HL089150/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL094963/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL094963-01/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008666/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL100001/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 3;471(7336):63-7. doi: 10.1038/nature09805.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21368825" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cells, Cultured ; Cellular Reprogramming/*genetics ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Epistasis, Genetic/genetics ; Fibroblasts/cytology/metabolism ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology/*metabolism ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Models, Genetic ; Mutagenesis/*genetics ; Open Reading Frames/genetics ; Point Mutation/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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