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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-01-22
    Description: The non-canonical NF-kappaB pathway forms a major arm of NF-kappaB signalling that mediates important biological functions, including lymphoid organogenesis, B-lymphocyte function, and cell growth and survival. Activation of the non-canonical NF-kappaB pathway involves degradation of an inhibitory protein, TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3), but how this signalling event is controlled is still unknown. Here we have identified the deubiquitinase OTUD7B as a pivotal regulator of the non-canonical NF-kappaB pathway. OTUD7B deficiency in mice has no appreciable effect on canonical NF-kappaB activation but causes hyperactivation of non-canonical NF-kappaB. In response to non-canonical NF-kappaB stimuli, OTUD7B binds and deubiquitinates TRAF3, thereby inhibiting TRAF3 proteolysis and preventing aberrant non-canonical NF-kappaB activation. Consequently, the OTUD7B deficiency results in B-cell hyper-responsiveness to antigens, lymphoid follicular hyperplasia in the intestinal mucosa, and elevated host-defence ability against an intestinal bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. These findings establish OTUD7B as a crucial regulator of signal-induced non-canonical NF-kappaB activation and indicate a mechanism of immune regulation that involves OTUD7B-mediated deubiquitination and stabilization of TRAF3.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3578967/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3578967/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hu, Hongbo -- Brittain, George C -- Chang, Jae-Hoon -- Puebla-Osorio, Nahum -- Jin, Jin -- Zal, Anna -- Xiao, Yichuan -- Cheng, Xuhong -- Chang, Mikyoung -- Fu, Yang-Xin -- Zal, Tomasz -- Zhu, Chengming -- Sun, Shao-Cong -- AI057555/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI064639/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA137059/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM84459/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA137059/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084459/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009598/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32CA009598/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Feb 21;494(7437):371-4. doi: 10.1038/nature11831. Epub 2013 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 7455 Fannin Street, Box 902, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23334419" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; B-Lymphocytes/immunology/metabolism ; Bacteria/immunology ; Cells, Cultured ; Endopeptidases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Female ; Fibroblasts ; HEK293 Cells ; Homeostasis ; Humans ; Intestines/immunology ; Male ; Mice ; NF-kappa B/*metabolism ; Proteolysis ; Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism ; TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3/*metabolism ; *Ubiquitination
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-08-19
    Description: Invasion of host erythrocytes is essential to the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites and development of the pathology of malaria. The stages of erythrocyte invasion, including initial contact, apical reorientation, junction formation, and active invagination, are directed by coordinated release of specialized apical organelles and their parasite protein contents. Among these proteins, and central to invasion by all species, are two parasite protein families, the reticulocyte-binding protein homologue (RH) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins, which mediate host-parasite interactions. RH5 from Plasmodium falciparum (PfRH5) is the only member of either family demonstrated to be necessary for erythrocyte invasion in all tested strains, through its interaction with the erythrocyte surface protein basigin (also known as CD147 and EMMPRIN). Antibodies targeting PfRH5 or basigin efficiently block parasite invasion in vitro, making PfRH5 an excellent vaccine candidate. Here we present crystal structures of PfRH5 in complex with basigin and two distinct inhibitory antibodies. PfRH5 adopts a novel fold in which two three-helical bundles come together in a kite-like architecture, presenting binding sites for basigin and inhibitory antibodies at one tip. This provides the first structural insight into erythrocyte binding by the Plasmodium RH protein family and identifies novel inhibitory epitopes to guide design of a new generation of vaccines against the blood-stage parasite.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4240730/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4240730/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wright, Katherine E -- Hjerrild, Kathryn A -- Bartlett, Jonathan -- Douglas, Alexander D -- Jin, Jing -- Brown, Rebecca E -- Illingworth, Joseph J -- Ashfield, Rebecca -- Clemmensen, Stine B -- de Jongh, Willem A -- Draper, Simon J -- Higgins, Matthew K -- 089455/2/09/z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 101020/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 101020/Z/13/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G1000527/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MR/K025554/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 20;515(7527):427-30. doi: 10.1038/nature13715. Epub 2014 Aug 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK. ; Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. ; ExpreS2ion Biotechnologies, SCION-DTU Science Park, Agern Alle 1, DK-2970 Horsholm, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25132548" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antibodies, Blocking/*chemistry/immunology ; Antigens, CD147/*chemistry/immunology ; Antigens, Protozoan/chemistry/immunology ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Epitopes/chemistry/immunology ; Erythrocytes/*chemistry ; Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology ; Humans ; *Malaria/parasitology ; Models, Molecular ; Plasmodium falciparum/*chemistry/immunology ; Protozoan Proteins/chemistry/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-08-27
    Description: Redox processes and radical intermediates are found in many biochemical processes, including deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and oxidative DNA damage. One of the core principles underlying DNA biosynthesis is the radical-mediated elimination of H2O to deoxygenate ribonucleotides, an example of 'spin-centre shift', during which an alcohol C-O bond is cleaved, resulting in a carbon-centred radical intermediate. Although spin-centre shift is a well-understood biochemical process, it is underused by the synthetic organic chemistry community. We wondered whether it would be possible to take advantage of this naturally occurring process to accomplish mild, non-traditional alkylation reactions using alcohols as radical precursors. Because conventional radical-based alkylation methods require the use of stoichiometric oxidants, increased temperatures or peroxides, a mild protocol using simple and abundant alkylating agents would have considerable use in the synthesis of diversely functionalized pharmacophores. Here we describe the development of a dual catalytic alkylation of heteroarenes, using alcohols as mild alkylating reagents. This method represents the first, to our knowledge, broadly applicable use of unactivated alcohols as latent alkylating reagents, achieved via the successful merger of photoredox and hydrogen atom transfer catalysis. The value of this multi-catalytic protocol has been demonstrated through the late-stage functionalization of the medicinal agents, fasudil and milrinone.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4560617/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4560617/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jin, Jian -- MacMillan, David W C -- R01 GM103558/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM103558-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 3;525(7567):87-90. doi: 10.1038/nature14885. Epub 2015 Aug 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Merck Center for Catalysis at Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308895" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine/analogs & derivatives/chemistry ; Alcohols/*chemistry ; Alkylating Agents/*chemistry ; Alkylation ; Carbon/*chemistry ; Catalysis ; Hydrogen/*chemistry ; Milrinone/chemistry ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Oxygen/chemistry ; Photochemical Processes ; Substrate Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-01-14
    Description: The reversible transfer of quantum states of light into and out of matter constitutes an important building block for future applications of quantum communication: it will allow the synchronization of quantum information, and the construction of quantum repeaters and quantum networks. Much effort has been devoted to the development of such quantum memories, the key property of which is the preservation of entanglement during storage. Here we report the reversible transfer of photon-photon entanglement into entanglement between a photon and a collective atomic excitation in a solid-state device. Towards this end, we employ a thulium-doped lithium niobate waveguide in conjunction with a photon-echo quantum memory protocol, and increase the spectral acceptance from the current maximum of 100 megahertz to 5 gigahertz. We assess the entanglement-preserving nature of our storage device through Bell inequality violations and by comparing the amount of entanglement contained in the detected photon pairs before and after the reversible transfer. These measurements show, within statistical error, a perfect mapping process. Our broadband quantum memory complements the family of robust, integrated lithium niobate devices. It simplifies frequency-matching of light with matter interfaces in advanced applications of quantum communication, bringing fully quantum-enabled networks a step closer.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Saglamyurek, Erhan -- Sinclair, Neil -- Jin, Jeongwan -- Slater, Joshua A -- Oblak, Daniel -- Bussieres, Felix -- George, Mathew -- Ricken, Raimund -- Sohler, Wolfgang -- Tittel, Wolfgang -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 27;469(7331):512-5. doi: 10.1038/nature09719. Epub 2011 Jan 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Quantum Information Science, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21228775" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-12-23
    Description: Angelman syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by deletion or mutation of the maternal allele of the ubiquitin protein ligase E3A (UBE3A). In neurons, the paternal allele of UBE3A is intact but epigenetically silenced, raising the possibility that Angelman syndrome could be treated by activating this silenced allele to restore functional UBE3A protein. Using an unbiased, high-content screen in primary cortical neurons from mice, we identify twelve topoisomerase I inhibitors and four topoisomerase II inhibitors that unsilence the paternal Ube3a allele. These drugs included topotecan, irinotecan, etoposide and dexrazoxane (ICRF-187). At nanomolar concentrations, topotecan upregulated catalytically active UBE3A in neurons from maternal Ube3a-null mice. Topotecan concomitantly downregulated expression of the Ube3a antisense transcript that overlaps the paternal copy of Ube3a. These results indicate that topotecan unsilences Ube3a in cis by reducing transcription of an imprinted antisense RNA. When administered in vivo, topotecan unsilenced the paternal Ube3a allele in several regions of the nervous system, including neurons in the hippocampus, neocortex, striatum, cerebellum and spinal cord. Paternal expression of Ube3a remained elevated in a subset of spinal cord neurons for at least 12 weeks after cessation of topotecan treatment, indicating that transient topoisomerase inhibition can have enduring effects on gene expression. Although potential off-target effects remain to be investigated, our findings suggest a therapeutic strategy for reactivating the functional but dormant allele of Ube3a in patients with Angelman syndrome.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257422/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257422/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Hsien-Sung -- Allen, John A -- Mabb, Angela M -- King, Ian F -- Miriyala, Jayalakshmi -- Taylor-Blake, Bonnie -- Sciaky, Noah -- Dutton, J Walter Jr -- Lee, Hyeong-Min -- Chen, Xin -- Jin, Jian -- Bridges, Arlene S -- Zylka, Mark J -- Roth, Bryan L -- Philpot, Benjamin D -- 5F32NS067712/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- 5P30NS045892/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- HHSN-271-2008-00025-C/PHS HHS/ -- P30 HD003110/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P30 HD003110-45/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P30HD03110/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01EY018323/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01MH093372/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01NS060725/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01NS067688/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- T32 HD040127/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- T32 HD040127-10/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- T32HD040127-07/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Dec 21;481(7380):185-9. doi: 10.1038/nature10726.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22190039" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Alleles ; Angelman Syndrome/drug therapy/genetics ; Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; Cerebral Cortex/cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical ; Fathers ; Female ; Gene Silencing/*drug effects ; Genomic Imprinting/drug effects/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mothers ; Neurons/*drug effects/*metabolism ; Small Molecule Libraries/administration & dosage/chemistry/pharmacology ; Topoisomerase Inhibitors/administration & ; dosage/analysis/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology ; Topotecan/administration & dosage/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/deficiency/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-11-10
    Description: At least 120 non-olfactory G-protein-coupled receptors in the human genome are 'orphans' for which endogenous ligands are unknown, and many have no selective ligands, hindering the determination of their biological functions and clinical relevance. Among these is GPR68, a proton receptor that lacks small molecule modulators for probing its biology. Using yeast-based screens against GPR68, here we identify the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam as a non-selective GPR68 positive allosteric modulator. More than 3,000 GPR68 homology models were refined to recognize lorazepam in a putative allosteric site. Docking 3.1 million molecules predicted new GPR68 modulators, many of which were confirmed in functional assays. One potent GPR68 modulator, ogerin, suppressed recall in fear conditioning in wild-type but not in GPR68-knockout mice. The same approach led to the discovery of allosteric agonists and negative allosteric modulators for GPR65. Combining physical and structure-based screening may be broadly useful for ligand discovery for understudied and orphan GPCRs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Xi-Ping -- Karpiak, Joel -- Kroeze, Wesley K -- Zhu, Hu -- Chen, Xin -- Moy, Sheryl S -- Saddoris, Kara A -- Nikolova, Viktoriya D -- Farrell, Martilias S -- Wang, Sheng -- Mangano, Thomas J -- Deshpande, Deepak A -- Jiang, Alice -- Penn, Raymond B -- Jin, Jian -- Koller, Beverly H -- Kenakin, Terry -- Shoichet, Brian K -- Roth, Bryan L -- GM59957/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM71896/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL114471/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA017204/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA027170/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH104974/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U19MH082441/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 HD079124/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 26;527(7579):477-83. doi: 10.1038/nature15699. Epub 2015 Nov 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599-7365, USA. ; National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (NIMH PDSP), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7365, USA. ; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California at San Francisco, Byers Hall, 1700 4th Street, San Francisco, California 94158-2550, USA. ; Center for Integrative Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery (CICBDD), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7363, USA. ; Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7360, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities (CIDD), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7146, USA. ; Center for Translational Medicine and Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA. ; Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7264, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26550826" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allosteric Regulation/drug effects ; Allosteric Site ; Animals ; Anti-Anxiety Agents/analysis/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Benzyl Alcohols/analysis/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Conditioning, Classical ; *Drug Discovery ; Fear ; Female ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Ligands ; Lorazepam/analysis/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Male ; Memory/drug effects ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Models, Molecular ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/agonists/antagonists & ; inhibitors/chemistry/deficiency/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Triazines/analysis/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of primary liver cancer and the third most frequent cause of cancer death worldwide. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is one of the recognized risk factors for hepatocarcinogenesis likely due to CYP2E1-mediated metabolic activation. However, CYP2E1-mediated DEN metabolic activity in non-neoplastic liver tissue from HCC patients has not been determined; the role of CYP2E1 activity, in particular CYP2E1 constitutive activity and CYP2E1 inhibited activity, with respect to the hepatocarcinogenesis induced by DEN is not yet clear. Herein, we determined CYP2E1-mediated DEN metabolic activity in non-neoplastic liver tissue from HCC patients and found that CYP2E1-mediated DEN metabolic activity was significantly elevated with a 43.3% positive rate, and clinicopathologic parameters did not affect the activity. Then, using a Sprague-Dawley rat liver tumor model induced by DEN, the relationship between CYP2E1 constitutive/inhibited activity and hepatocarcinogenesis was explored. The results showed that the CYP2E1 constitutive activity was strongly correlated with tumor incidence and severity of liver tumorigenesis (nodule numbers and size), whereas inhibition of CYP2E1 activity decreased hepatocyte proliferation, liver injury, and liver carcinogenesis in the presence of DEN. In conclusion, the higher CYP2E1 activity would lead to an increased incidence of HCC as a result of CYP2E1-mediated DEN activation. Therefore, higher CYP2E1 activity might be a risk factor for HCC induced by DEN.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3565
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0103
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-04-14
    Description: Driven-dissipative quantum many-body systems have attracted increasing interest in recent years as they lead to novel classes of quantum many-body phenomena. In particular, mean-field calculations predict limit cycle phases, slow oscillations instead of stationary states, in the long-time limit for a number of driven-dissipative quantum many-body systems. Using a cluster mean-field and a self-consistent Mori projector approach, we explore the persistence of such limit cycles as short range quantum correlations are taken into account in a driven-dissipative Heisenberg model.
    Electronic ISSN: 1367-2630
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
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    The International Institute of Anticancer Research (IIAR)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: Background/Aim: Persistent activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is an important mechanism in resistance of breast cancer to endocrine therapy. Although everolimus has potent inhibitory effects on the mTOR pathway, it has demonstrated only modest clinical activity as a single agent. Whether long noncoding (lnc) RNA is involved in everolimus resistance is unknown. Materials and Methods: Cell viability, colony formation and cell proliferation experiments were used to measure the effects of long noncoding RNA N-acylsphingosine amidohydrolase 2B-2 (lnc-ASAH2B-2) knockdown in BT474 and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Results: lnc-ASAH2B-2 was up-regulated by everolimus in cells with and without serum, and reduction of lnc-ASAH2B-2 expression was able to inhibit proliferation of BT474 and MCF7 cells. Conclusion: lnc-ASAH2B-2 was up-regulated after everolimus exposure and efficiently regulated breast cancer cell growth by activating the mTOR pathway, which may reduce the effect of everolimus, providing evidence that lnc-ASAH2B-2 might be a new therapeutic target for breast cancer.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-08-16
    Description: Bamboo is susceptible to mould and attack by fungi because of its high content of starch and sugar. To make bamboo-based outdoor materials, a new type of bamboo timber with improved mould resistance and antibacterial activity, coated with reduced graphene oxide and nanocrystal ZnO (abbreviated as RGO@ZnOBT), was fabricated by a two-step dip-dry and hydrothermal process. A possible synthesis mechanism for RGO@ZnOBT was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersal X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. According to the China standard test method, the Aspergillus niger mould resistance of RGO@ZnOBT is grade 2, whereas the Trichoderma viride and Penicillium citrinum mould resistance of RGO@ZnOBT is grade 0, both of which are better than the grade 4 of original bamboo timber. The Escherichia coli resistance test showed that the antibacterial circle of RGO@ZnOBT is 3 mm, which is significantly higher than that of original bamboo timber (0 mm). The antibacterial activity of treated bamboo is significantly improved compared with that of untreated bamboo.
    Keywords: materials science, nanotechnology, biomaterials
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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