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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-11-01
    Description: The 2002-3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history. An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus suggests that this group of viruses remains a key threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested to be the natural reservoirs of both viruses, attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa, but none is considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). Here we report whole-genome sequences of two novel bat coronaviruses from Chinese horseshoe bats (family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China: RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat coronaviruses, particularly in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat faecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses ACE2 from humans, civets and Chinese horseshoe bats for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen-discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ge, Xing-Yi -- Li, Jia-Lu -- Yang, Xing-Lou -- Chmura, Aleksei A -- Zhu, Guangjian -- Epstein, Jonathan H -- Mazet, Jonna K -- Hu, Ben -- Zhang, Wei -- Peng, Cheng -- Zhang, Yu-Ji -- Luo, Chu-Ming -- Tan, Bing -- Wang, Ning -- Zhu, Yan -- Crameri, Gary -- Zhang, Shu-Yi -- Wang, Lin-Fa -- Daszak, Peter -- Shi, Zheng-Li -- R01AI079231/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01TW005869/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- R56TW009502/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Nov 28;503(7477):535-8. doi: 10.1038/nature12711. Epub 2013 Oct 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China [2].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; China ; Chiroptera/*virology ; Disease Reservoirs/virology ; Feces/virology ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique ; Genome, Viral/genetics ; Host Specificity ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pandemics/prevention & control/veterinary ; Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics/*metabolism ; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Receptors, Virus/genetics/metabolism ; SARS Virus/genetics/*isolation & purification/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & ; control/transmission/veterinary/virology ; Species Specificity ; Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry/metabolism ; Vero Cells ; Virion/isolation & purification/ultrastructure ; Virus Internalization ; Viverridae/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-2981
    Keywords: Key words:Alcids – Anaemia – Captivity – Haematology – Heinz-bodies – Petroleum toxicity – Seabirds
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Free-ranging marine birds are severely impacted by petroleum released into the environment. Although petroleum can affect many organ systems, oxidative damage to red blood cells (RBC) and development of Heinz body anaemia is the only known mechanism of RBC damage in oil-exposed marine birds. Rhinoceros auklets (Cerrorhinca monocerata) were orally exposed to 0, 2.5 or 10 ml of Prudhoe Bay crude oil/kg body weight for five consecutive days by gavage tube. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups were evident for the following blood parameters: packed cell volume (PCV); haemoglobin concentration (Hb); mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC); reticulocyte percentage; fibrinogen concentration; white blood cell count (WBC); and cell counts of heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. After petroleum exposure, blood samples from auklets did not have any evidence of haemolysis, oxidative RBC damage or Heinz body formation as determined by new methylene blue staining of blood smears.  Anaemia developed in both oil-exposed and unexposed auklets within 3 weeks of being captured and placed in captivity. Anaemia persisted throughout the duration of the study (77 days). Statistically significant differences over time were identified for PCV, Hb concentration, MCHC, reticulocyte percentage, fibrinogen concentration and lymphocyte, eosinophil and basophil numbers in auklets, without regard to petroleum exposure status. A mild transient regenerative response was noted after gavaging birds with either petroleum or sterile saline, however, the PCV never returned to levels measured immediately after capture.  It is likely that anaemia associated with petroleum exposure in seabirds is multifactorial and may be associated with the sedentary nature of captivity, a variety of captivity associated stressors and possibly, the age of affected birds. Furthermore, neither inflammatory nor acute phase responses were consistent indicators of petroleum ingestion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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