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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-11-15
    Description: So far, two genes associated with familial melanoma have been identified, accounting for a minority of genetic risk in families. Mutations in CDKN2A account for approximately 40% of familial cases, and predisposing mutations in CDK4 have been reported in a very small number of melanoma kindreds. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing of probands from several melanoma families, which we performed in order to identify other genes associated with familial melanoma. We identify one individual carrying a novel germline variant (coding DNA sequence c.G1075A; protein sequence p.E318K; rs149617956) in the melanoma-lineage-specific oncogene microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Although the variant co-segregated with melanoma in some but not all cases in the family, linkage analysis of 31 families subsequently identified to carry the variant generated a log of odds (lod) score of 2.7 under a dominant model, indicating E318K as a possible intermediate risk variant. Consistent with this, the E318K variant was significantly associated with melanoma in a large Australian case-control sample. Likewise, it was similarly associated in an independent case-control sample from the United Kingdom. In the Australian sample, the variant allele was significantly over-represented in cases with a family history of melanoma, multiple primary melanomas, or both. The variant allele was also associated with increased naevus count and non-blue eye colour. Functional analysis of E318K showed that MITF encoded by the variant allele had impaired sumoylation and differentially regulated several MITF targets. These data indicate that MITF is a melanoma-predisposition gene and highlight the utility of whole-genome sequencing to identify novel rare variants associated with disease susceptibility.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266855/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266855/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yokoyama, Satoru -- Woods, Susan L -- Boyle, Glen M -- Aoude, Lauren G -- MacGregor, Stuart -- Zismann, Victoria -- Gartside, Michael -- Cust, Anne E -- Haq, Rizwan -- Harland, Mark -- Taylor, John C -- Duffy, David L -- Holohan, Kelly -- Dutton-Regester, Ken -- Palmer, Jane M -- Bonazzi, Vanessa -- Stark, Mitchell S -- Symmons, Judith -- Law, Matthew H -- Schmidt, Christopher -- Lanagan, Cathy -- O'Connor, Linda -- Holland, Elizabeth A -- Schmid, Helen -- Maskiell, Judith A -- Jetann, Jodie -- Ferguson, Megan -- Jenkins, Mark A -- Kefford, Richard F -- Giles, Graham G -- Armstrong, Bruce K -- Aitken, Joanne F -- Hopper, John L -- Whiteman, David C -- Pharoah, Paul D -- Easton, Douglas F -- Dunning, Alison M -- Newton-Bishop, Julia A -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Mann, Graham J -- Bishop, D Timothy -- Tsao, Hensin -- Trent, Jeffrey M -- Fisher, David E -- Hayward, Nicholas K -- Brown, Kevin M -- 10118/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 10589/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- AR043369-14/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- C490/A11021/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C588/A10589/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C588/A4994/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C8197/A10123/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C8216/A6129/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- CA88363/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K24CA149202/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50CA9368/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR043369/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA-83115-01A2/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA088363/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA088363-09/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA83115/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 13;480(7375):99-103. doi: 10.1038/nature10630.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Dermatology, Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts 02114, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22080950" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Humans ; Male ; Melanoma/*genetics ; Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor/*genetics ; Middle Aged ; *Mutation ; Sumoylation/genetics ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Histochemistry and cell biology 14 (1968), S. 366-374 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Data has been obtained concerning the reduction of tetrazolium salts by mitochondria isolated from Jerusalem artichoke tubers with succinate as the substrate using a direct recording spectrophotometric method of assay. ATP was found to increase the rate of reduction of the tetrazolium salts, this being independent of the effect ATP had on the rate of oxygen uptake. The magnitude of the stimulation by ATP depended on the concentration of tetrazolium salts present and under certain circumstances was suppressed by the addition of azide and cyanide. The sites at which the tetrazolium salts were reduced along the electron transport chain were investigated. The role of ATP has been discussed in relation to the mechanism of tetrazolium reduction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The immobilisation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in cubes of polyurethane foam enables ligninase to be produced on a semi-continuous basis. At each successive harvest, cultures are purged with oxygen and ligninase activity induced with veratryl alcohol. Using 200 ml of a five-fold dilution of the batch culture medium in 1l flasks, harvests of ligninase with the same apparent protein profile by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) are obtained every 24 to 48 h. It is also possible to store cubes of foam containing pellets of P. chrysosporium so that further yields of ligninase comparable to fresh cultures can be produced within 48 h when desired.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The pH optimum of a crude preparation of lignin peroxidase was pH 3.1, whereas those of the three main isozymes of the enzyme purified from it were pH 2.2, pH 2.7 and pH 2.0. During the purification of the crude enzyme, an anionic polysaccharide containing fraction (PCF) was also separated. The latter was found to inhibit lignin peroxidase activity at pH values less than pH 3.2, thus resulting in a shift in the pH optimum of the purified isozymes back to a similar value as that obtained for the crude enzyme. Addition of divalent metal ions at 1.0 mM relieved the inhibition.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 216 (1967), S. 1208-1208 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The results presented here were obtained from a series of experiments which were carried out to investigate whether it might be possible, by changing the method of filtration and centrifugation, substantially to reduce the time necessary to isolate biochemically active mito chondria from Jerusalem ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] It has now been demonstrated that the changes with time in the rate of absorption of phosphate can bo prevented if the fresh segments are placed in maleate buffer containing 2,4-D. The results given in Fig. 1 show that the change in the capacity to absorb phosphate is dependent on the concentration ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 241 (1973), S. 45-47 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Mitochondrial complementation is a more complex phenomenon, reported to occur when mitochondria isolated from the two prospective parents are mixed in vitro. The phenomenon can be recognized by the superior biochemical activity (measured by the rate of oxidation and efficiency of phosphorylation) ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 221 (1969), S. 717-723 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Present knowledge of oxidative phosphorylation, the principal problem of mitochondrial research, is likely to be extended not only by available techniques but also by more sophisticated methods which will answer questions of ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 10 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The wood-degrading white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, has been the subject of intensive research in recent years and, based upon isolation of the extracellular enzyme ligninase, major advances have now been made toward elucidating the mechanism by which this fungus degrades lignin. From these developments, a model emerges which could explain the process by which wood-degrading fungi in general, attack lignin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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