Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Processing variables affecting toasted wheat properties were studied. For maximum gelatinization of starch, substantial moisture, up to 60% of the weight of the dry wheat, must be infused into the whole kernel and equilibrated prior to the heat treatment. Moistening, tempering and toasting optima were established. Cold paste viscosities can be reduced by over-toasting, as well as under-toasting. Heating rates must maximize starch gelatinization before moisture is evaporated. Enzyme inactivation, which affects storage stability as well as viscosity values, was not complete in 20 set at 300°F (mass-avg kernel temp 275°F) but was complete in only 15 set at 400°F (tMA= 323°F). Toasting expands the kernel twofold or more and creates a porous endosperm structure which absorbs water readily. Several applications were tested, such as soup and sauce thickeners, breaders and cereals for domestic and foreign feeding programs.
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