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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-05-09
    Description: Rapid Arctic warming and sea-ice reduction in the Arctic Ocean are widely attributed to anthropogenic climate change. The Arctic warming exceeds the global average warming because of feedbacks that include sea-ice reduction and other dynamical and radiative feedbacks. We find that the most prominent annual mean surface and tropospheric warming in the Arctic since 1979 has occurred in northeastern Canada and Greenland. In this region, much of the year-to-year temperature variability is associated with the leading mode of large-scale circulation variability in the North Atlantic, namely, the North Atlantic Oscillation. Here we show that the recent warming in this region is strongly associated with a negative trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation, which is a response to anomalous Rossby wave-train activity originating in the tropical Pacific. Atmospheric model experiments forced by prescribed tropical sea surface temperatures simulate the observed circulation changes and associated tropospheric and surface warming over northeastern Canada and Greenland. Experiments from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (ref. 16) models with prescribed anthropogenic forcing show no similar circulation changes related to the North Atlantic Oscillation or associated tropospheric warming. This suggests that a substantial portion of recent warming in the northeastern Canada and Greenland sector of the Arctic arises from unforced natural variability.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ding, Qinghua -- Wallace, John M -- Battisti, David S -- Steig, Eric J -- Gallant, Ailie J E -- Kim, Hyung-Jin -- Geng, Lei -- England -- Nature. 2014 May 8;509(7499):209-12. doi: 10.1038/nature13260.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Quaternary Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia. ; Climate Research Department, APEC Climate Center, 12 Centum 7-ro, Haeundae-gu, Busan 612-020, South Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24805345" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Air ; Arctic Regions ; Canada ; *Feedback ; Global Warming/*statistics & numerical data ; Greenland ; Hot Temperature ; Human Activities ; Ice Cover ; Models, Theoretical ; Pacific Ocean ; Seawater ; *Tropical Climate
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-02-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wallace, John M -- Held, Isaac M -- Thompson, David W J -- Trenberth, Kevin E -- Walsh, John E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Feb 14;343(6172):729-30. doi: 10.1126/science.343.6172.729.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24531953" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cold Temperature ; *Global Warming ; Ice Cover ; *Seasons ; *Snow ; United States ; Wind
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We report the use of electrochemical capacitance-voltage profiling of n-type ZnSe layers by the use of NaOH electrolyte. Samples with both uniform and staircase doping profiles have been measured with concentrations ranging over 1016–1019 cm−3. The profiling technique has revealed in some samples regions of lower carrier concentration at the surface and at the ZnSe/GaAs interface. Our results demonstrate that this powerful technique can now be used for assessing the growth parameters of wideband gap II-VI materials in the same way that is widely accepted for III-V semiconductors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Processing variables affecting toasted wheat properties were studied. For maximum gelatinization of starch, substantial moisture, up to 60% of the weight of the dry wheat, must be infused into the whole kernel and equilibrated prior to the heat treatment. Moistening, tempering and toasting optima were established. Cold paste viscosities can be reduced by over-toasting, as well as under-toasting. Heating rates must maximize starch gelatinization before moisture is evaporated. Enzyme inactivation, which affects storage stability as well as viscosity values, was not complete in 20 set at 300°F (mass-avg kernel temp 275°F) but was complete in only 15 set at 400°F (tMA= 323°F). Toasting expands the kernel twofold or more and creates a porous endosperm structure which absorbs water readily. Several applications were tested, such as soup and sauce thickeners, breaders and cereals for domestic and foreign feeding programs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The characteristic aroma, flavour and texture of cheese develop during ripening of the cheese curd through the action of numerous enzymes derived from the cheese milk, the coagulant, starter and non-starter bacteria. Ripening is a slow and consequently an expensive process that is not fully predictable or controllable. Consequently, there are economic and possibly technological incentives to accelerate ripening. The principal methods by which this may be achieved are: an elevated ripening temperature, modified starters, exogenous enzymes and cheese slurries. The advantages, limitations, technical feasibility and commercial potential of these methods are discussed and compared.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 27 (1995), S. 469-514 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Fluids 30 (1987), S. 3323-3325 
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Results of direct measurements of helicity density and other velocity derivative related flow properties are reported for a turbulent flow past a grid at Reλ=75. The velocity and vorticity vectors exhibit a tendency to be aligned. The flow is found to lack reflectional symmetry, which is manifested by a nonzero correlation between the velocity and vorticity vector fluctuations and considerable asymmetry in the probability density function of the cosine of the angle between the velocity and vorticity vector fluctuations. This asymmetry, as well as the tendency for alignment, increases for larger values of ||v|| ||ω||.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Fluids 3 (1991), S. 2337-2340 
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A computational approach for simulations in the emerging field of short-pulse (τ〈1 psec), high-intensity (I=1017–1019 W/cm2 ) laser–plasma interactions is introduced. The approach is a particle-in-cell method (PIC) which, as unique features, incorporates electron–ion collisions at relativistic energies and the time variation of the ionization state of the plasma. This has been incorporated into the wave two-dimensional plasma simulation code [Phys. Fluids 18, 1017 (1975)] for the purpose of simulating experiments at the Los Alamos Bright Source facilities [Phys. Rev. A 39, 454 (1989)]. However, the computational methods should be useful for work in laser fusion and other areas where rapid ionization occurs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Fluids 3 (1991), S. 1579-1586 
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A method has been developed for performing numerical particle-in-cell simulations of the Weibel instability in which the driving anisotropy is held constant. With the method, the instability is computed to grow to saturation in a well-behaved manner. Initially, growth is in close agreement with the predictions of linear theory. Subsequently, the growth rate falls below linear-theory predictions as magnetic fields grow to substantial levels. And finally, the instability reaches saturation, after which a steady state is established. A single mode comes to dominate the magnetic field at late times in the simulations. This is the mode identified in linear theory as the most rapidly growing. The method has been employed to investigate the importance of the Weibel instability in laser-produced plasmas. It is found that, because of saturation, the fields do not grow sufficiently to affect heat flow (ωcτ〈1) in the overdense plasma. In the near-critical underdense plasma, the fields would have, at most, marginal influence for shorter wavelength irradiation (λL≤0.25 μm) but possibly substantial influence at longer wavelengths (λL≥1 μm).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Self-focusing and filamentation of short wavelength laser light in high Z plasmas of interest to laser fusion are discussed. It is found that self-focusing behavior is very dependent on the details of the characteristics of the laser beam, the plasma conditions, and the energy transport processes. Laser light absorption and self-focusing are strongly competitive processes. At. 0.26 μm wavelength the collisional absorption is often so great that there is no intensity amplification of the beam despite the fact that strong self-focusing is present. Wide variations are found in laser light penetration, affected by several factors. Diverging optics reduce the likelihood of self-focusing. Large scale length density gradients have little effect on focusing behavior. The self-focusing behavior is very dependent on beam shape. Large scale hot spots can have a significant effect on whole beam self-focusing early in the pulse. The behavior of small scale hot spots can be qualitatively different than the standard picture. The calculations indicate that small scale hot spots do not achieve a steady state in some cases. Sound waves cause chaotic interactions among neighboring hot spots. It is found that sub-beam size structures are also generated when nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) radiation and atomic physics are used in the calculations. The nature of the heat flux and thermoelectric magnetic field generation are examined with a kinetic model. Stimulated Raman backscattering levels in self-focused light are significantly reduced for short wavelengths and high Z plasmas Landau damping plays an important role in determining the Raman levels. Implications for suprathermal electron production, symmetric illumination, x-ray conversion efficiency, and laser light absorption are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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