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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-11-25
    Description: Variable regions 1 and 2 (V1/V2) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein are critical for viral evasion of antibody neutralization, and are themselves protected by extraordinary sequence diversity and N-linked glycosylation. Human antibodies such as PG9 nonetheless engage V1/V2 and neutralize 80% of HIV-1 isolates. Here we report the structure of V1/V2 in complex with PG9. V1/V2 forms a four-stranded beta-sheet domain, in which sequence diversity and glycosylation are largely segregated to strand-connecting loops. PG9 recognition involves electrostatic, sequence-independent and glycan interactions: the latter account for over half the interactive surface but are of sufficiently weak affinity to avoid autoreactivity. The structures of V1/V2-directed antibodies CH04 and PGT145 indicate that they share a common mode of glycan penetration by extended anionic loops. In addition to structurally defining V1/V2, the results thus identify a paradigm of antibody recognition for highly glycosylated antigens, which-with PG9-involves a site of vulnerability comprising just two glycans and a strand.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406929/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406929/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McLellan, Jason S -- Pancera, Marie -- Carrico, Chris -- Gorman, Jason -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Khayat, Reza -- Louder, Robert -- Pejchal, Robert -- Sastry, Mallika -- Dai, Kaifan -- O'Dell, Sijy -- Patel, Nikita -- Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed -- Yang, Yongping -- Zhang, Baoshan -- Zhou, Tongqing -- Zhu, Jiang -- Boyington, Jeffrey C -- Chuang, Gwo-Yu -- Diwanji, Devan -- Georgiev, Ivelin -- Kwon, Young Do -- Lee, Doyung -- Louder, Mark K -- Moquin, Stephanie -- Schmidt, Stephen D -- Yang, Zhi-Yong -- Bonsignori, Mattia -- Crump, John A -- Kapiga, Saidi H -- Sam, Noel E -- Haynes, Barton F -- Burton, Dennis R -- Koff, Wayne C -- Walker, Laura M -- Phogat, Sanjay -- Wyatt, Richard -- Orwenyo, Jared -- Wang, Lai-Xi -- Arthos, James -- Bewley, Carole A -- Mascola, John R -- Nabel, Gary J -- Schief, William R -- Ward, Andrew B -- Wilson, Ian A -- Kwong, Peter D -- R01 AI033292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- RR017573/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 23;480(7377):336-43. doi: 10.1038/nature10696.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22113616" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/chemistry/immunology ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/*immunology ; Antibody Affinity/immunology ; Antibody Specificity/*immunology ; Antigen-Antibody Complex/chemistry/immunology ; Binding Sites, Antibody/immunology ; Conserved Sequence ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Epitopes/chemistry/immunology ; Glycopeptides/chemistry/immunology ; Glycosylation ; HIV Antibodies/chemistry/*immunology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120/*chemistry/*immunology ; HIV-1/*chemistry/*immunology ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Immune Evasion ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Polysaccharides/chemistry/immunology ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: HKU1 is a human betacoronavirus that causes mild yet prevalent respiratory disease, and is related to the zoonotic SARS and MERS betacoronaviruses, which have high fatality rates and pandemic potential. Cell tropism and host range is determined in part by the coronavirus spike (S) protein, which binds cellular receptors and mediates membrane fusion. As the largest known class I fusion protein, its size and extensive glycosylation have hindered structural studies of the full ectodomain, thus preventing a molecular understanding of its function and limiting development of effective interventions. Here we present the 4.0 A resolution structure of the trimeric HKU1 S protein determined using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. In the pre-fusion conformation, the receptor-binding subunits, S1, rest above the fusion-mediating subunits, S2, preventing their conformational rearrangement. Surprisingly, the S1 C-terminal domains are interdigitated and form extensive quaternary interactions that occlude surfaces known in other coronaviruses to bind protein receptors. These features, along with the location of the two protease sites known to be important for coronavirus entry, provide a structural basis to support a model of membrane fusion mediated by progressive S protein destabilization through receptor binding and proteolytic cleavage. These studies should also serve as a foundation for the structure-based design of betacoronavirus vaccine immunogens.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860016/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860016/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kirchdoerfer, Robert N -- Cottrell, Christopher A -- Wang, Nianshuang -- Pallesen, Jesper -- Yassine, Hadi M -- Turner, Hannah L -- Corbett, Kizzmekia S -- Graham, Barney S -- McLellan, Jason S -- Ward, Andrew B -- R56 AI118016/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):118-21. doi: 10.1038/nature17200.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA. ; Viral Pathogenesis Laboratory, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Building 40, Room 2502, 40 Convent Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935699" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line ; Coronavirus/*chemistry/*ultrastructure ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Humans ; Membrane Fusion ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Binding ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/metabolism ; Proteolysis ; Receptors, Virus/metabolism ; Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/*chemistry/metabolism/*ultrastructure ; Viral Vaccines/chemistry/immunology ; Virus Internalization
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-11-02
    Description: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization for children under 5 years of age. We sought to engineer a viral antigen that provides greater protection than currently available vaccines and focused on antigenic site O, a metastable site specific to the prefusion state of the RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein, as this site is targeted by extremely potent RSV-neutralizing antibodies. Structure-based design yielded stabilized versions of RSV F that maintained antigenic site O when exposed to extremes of pH, osmolality, and temperature. Six RSV F crystal structures provided atomic-level data on how introduced cysteine residues and filled hydrophobic cavities improved stability. Immunization with site O-stabilized variants of RSV F in mice and macaques elicited levels of RSV-specific neutralizing activity many times the protective threshold.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4461862/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4461862/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McLellan, Jason S -- Chen, Man -- Joyce, M Gordon -- Sastry, Mallika -- Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B E -- Yang, Yongping -- Zhang, Baoshan -- Chen, Lei -- Srivatsan, Sanjay -- Zheng, Anqi -- Zhou, Tongqing -- Graepel, Kevin W -- Kumar, Azad -- Moin, Syed -- Boyington, Jeffrey C -- Chuang, Gwo-Yu -- Soto, Cinque -- Baxa, Ulrich -- Bakker, Arjen Q -- Spits, Hergen -- Beaumont, Tim -- Zheng, Zizheng -- Xia, Ningshao -- Ko, Sung-Youl -- Todd, John-Paul -- Rao, Srinivas -- Graham, Barney S -- Kwong, Peter D -- ZIA AI005024-11/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AI005061-10/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Nov 1;342(6158):592-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1243283.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24179220" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology ; Antigens, Viral/*chemistry/genetics/immunology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cysteine/chemistry/genetics ; Glycoproteins/*chemistry/genetics/immunology ; Humans ; Macaca ; Mice ; Protein Engineering ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Stability ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/*prevention & control ; Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/*chemistry ; Vaccination ; Viral Fusion Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-04-27
    Description: The prefusion state of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) glycoprotein is the target of most RSV-neutralizing activity in human sera, but its metastability has hindered characterization. To overcome this obstacle, we identified prefusion-specific antibodies that were substantially more potent than the prophylactic antibody palivizumab. The cocrystal structure for one of these antibodies, D25, in complex with the F glycoprotein revealed D25 to lock F in its prefusion state by binding to a quaternary epitope at the trimer apex. Electron microscopy showed that two other antibodies, AM22 and 5C4, also bound to the newly identified site of vulnerability, which we named antigenic site O. These studies should enable design of improved vaccine antigens and define new targets for passive prevention of RSV-induced disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4459498/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4459498/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McLellan, Jason S -- Chen, Man -- Leung, Sherman -- Graepel, Kevin W -- Du, Xiulian -- Yang, Yongping -- Zhou, Tongqing -- Baxa, Ulrich -- Yasuda, Etsuko -- Beaumont, Tim -- Kumar, Azad -- Modjarrad, Kayvon -- Zheng, Zizheng -- Zhao, Min -- Xia, Ningshao -- Kwong, Peter D -- Graham, Barney S -- ZIA AI005024-11/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AI005061-10/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 31;340(6136):1113-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1234914. Epub 2013 Apr 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. mclellanja@niaid.nih.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23618766" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/*immunology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Female ; Glycoproteins/chemistry/*immunology ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neutralization Tests ; Palivizumab ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Multimerization ; Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/chemistry/*immunology ; Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/*immunology/physiology ; Viral Fusion Proteins/chemistry/*immunology ; Virus Internalization
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-09-11
    Description: The RV144 trial demonstrated 31% vaccine efficacy at preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Antibodies against the HIV-1 envelope variable loops 1 and 2 (Env V1 and V2) correlated inversely with infection risk. We proposed that vaccine-induced immune responses against V1/V2 would have a selective effect against, or sieve, HIV-1 breakthrough viruses. A total of 936 HIV-1 genome sequences from 44 vaccine and 66 placebo recipients were examined. We show that vaccine-induced immune responses were associated with two signatures in V2 at amino acid positions 169 and 181. Vaccine efficacy against viruses matching the vaccine at position 169 was 48% (confidence interval 18% to 66%; P = 0.0036), whereas vaccine efficacy against viruses mismatching the vaccine at position 181 was 78% (confidence interval 35% to 93%; P = 0.0028). Residue 169 is in a cationic glycosylated region recognized by broadly neutralizing and RV144-derived antibodies. The predicted distance between the two signature sites (21 +/- 7 A) and their match/mismatch dichotomy indicate that multiple factors may be involved in the protection observed in RV144. Genetic signatures of RV144 vaccination in V2 complement the finding of an association between high V1/V2-binding antibodies and reduced risk of HIV-1 acquisition, and provide evidence that vaccine-induced V2 responses plausibly had a role in the partial protection conferred by the RV144 regimen.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3551291/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3551291/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rolland, Morgane -- Edlefsen, Paul T -- Larsen, Brendan B -- Tovanabutra, Sodsai -- Sanders-Buell, Eric -- Hertz, Tomer -- deCamp, Allan C -- Carrico, Chris -- Menis, Sergey -- Magaret, Craig A -- Ahmed, Hasan -- Juraska, Michal -- Chen, Lennie -- Konopa, Philip -- Nariya, Snehal -- Stoddard, Julia N -- Wong, Kim -- Zhao, Hong -- Deng, Wenjie -- Maust, Brandon S -- Bose, Meera -- Howell, Shana -- Bates, Adam -- Lazzaro, Michelle -- O'Sullivan, Annemarie -- Lei, Esther -- Bradfield, Andrea -- Ibitamuno, Grace -- Assawadarachai, Vatcharain -- O'Connell, Robert J -- deSouza, Mark S -- Nitayaphan, Sorachai -- Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai -- Robb, Merlin L -- McLellan, Jason S -- Georgiev, Ivelin -- Kwong, Peter D -- Carlson, Jonathan M -- Michael, Nelson L -- Schief, William R -- Gilbert, Peter B -- Mullins, James I -- Kim, Jerome H -- 2R37AI05465-10/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- K25 AI087397/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI054165/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI054165/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI068635/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Y01 AI2642-12/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Y1-AI-2642-12/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 18;490(7420):417-20. doi: 10.1038/nature11519. Epub 2012 Sep 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉US Military HIV Research Program, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, USA. mrolland@hivresearch.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22960785" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/adverse effects/*immunology ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; HIV Antibodies/immunology ; HIV Infections/immunology/*prevention & control/*virology ; HIV-1/*genetics/*immunology ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/*genetics/*immunology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-10-25
    Description: The manipulation of protein backbone structure to control interaction and function is a challenge for protein engineering. We integrated computational design with experimental selection for grafting the backbone and side chains of a two-segment HIV gp120 epitope, targeted by the cross-neutralizing antibody b12, onto an unrelated scaffold protein. The final scaffolds bound b12 with high specificity and with affinity similar to that of gp120, and crystallographic analysis of a scaffold bound to b12 revealed high structural mimicry of the gp120-b12 complex structure. The method can be generalized to design other functional proteins through backbone grafting.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Azoitei, Mihai L -- Correia, Bruno E -- Ban, Yih-En Andrew -- Carrico, Chris -- Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr -- Chen, Lei -- Schroeter, Alexandria -- Huang, Po-Ssu -- McLellan, Jason S -- Kwong, Peter D -- Baker, David -- Strong, Roland K -- Schief, William R -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Oct 21;334(6054):373-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1209368.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021856" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry/immunology/metabolism ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/*chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; Antibody Affinity ; Antibody Specificity ; Antigens, CD4/metabolism ; Computational Biology ; Computer Simulation ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Epitopes/immunology ; HIV Antibodies/chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120/*chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Mimicry ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis ; Protein Conformation ; *Protein Engineering ; Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs ; Surface Plasmon Resonance
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-02-27
    Description: Ebola virus causes hemorrhagic fever with a high case fatality rate for which there is no approved therapy. Two human monoclonal antibodies, mAb100 and mAb114, in combination, protect nonhuman primates against all signs of Ebola virus disease, including viremia. Here, we demonstrate that mAb100 recognizes the base of the Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) trimer, occludes access to the cathepsin-cleavage loop, and prevents the proteolytic cleavage of GP that is required for virus entry. We show that mAb114 interacts with the glycan cap and inner chalice of GP, remains associated after proteolytic removal of the glycan cap, and inhibits binding of cleaved GP to its receptor. These results define the basis of neutralization for two protective antibodies and may facilitate development of therapies and vaccines.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Misasi, John -- Gilman, Morgan S A -- Kanekiyo, Masaru -- Gui, Miao -- Cagigi, Alberto -- Mulangu, Sabue -- Corti, Davide -- Ledgerwood, Julie E -- Lanzavecchia, Antonio -- Cunningham, James -- Muyembe-Tamfun, Jean Jacques -- Baxa, Ulrich -- Graham, Barney S -- Xiang, Ye -- Sullivan, Nancy J -- McLellan, Jason S -- 5K08AI079381/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- HHSN261200800001E/PHS HHS/ -- T32GM008704/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1343-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6117. Epub 2016 Feb 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, USA. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; Centre for Infectious Diseases Research, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China. ; Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Universita della Svizzera Italiana, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. ; Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Universita della Svizzera Italiana, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; National Institute for Biomedical Research, National Laboratory of Public Health, Kinshasa B.P. 1197, Democratic Republic of the Congo. ; Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Cancer Research Technology Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21702, USA. ; Centre for Infectious Diseases Research, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China. njsull@mail.nih.gov yxiang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. njsull@mail.nih.gov yxiang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26917592" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antibodies, Monoclonal/*chemistry/immunology ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/*chemistry/immunology ; Antibodies, Viral/*chemistry/immunology ; Cathepsins/chemistry ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Ebolavirus/*immunology ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/immunology/*prevention & control ; Humans ; Protein Conformation ; Proteolysis ; Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-04-28
    Description: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a highly lethal pulmonary infection with ~35% mortality. The potential for a future pandemic originating from animal reservoirs or health care-associated events is a major public health concern. There are no vaccines or therapeutic agents currently available for MERS-CoV. Using a probe-based single B cell cloning strategy, we have identified and characterized multiple neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specifically binding to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or S1 (non-RBD) regions from a convalescent MERS-CoV-infected patient and from immunized rhesus macaques. RBD-specific MAbs tended to have greater neutralizing potency than non-RBD S1-specific MAbs. Six RBD-specific and five S1-specific MAbs could be sorted into four RBD and three non-RBD distinct binding patterns, based on competition assays, mapping neutralization escape variants, and structural analysis. We determined cocrystal structures for two MAbs targeting the RBD from different angles and show they can bind the RBD only in the "out" position. We then showed that selected RBD-specific, non-RBD S1-specific, and S2-specific MAbs given prophylactically prevented MERS-CoV replication in lungs and protected mice from lethal challenge. Importantly, combining RBD- and non-RBD MAbs delayed the emergence of escape mutations in a cell-based virus escape assay. These studies identify MAbs targeting different antigenic sites on S that will be useful for defining mechanisms of MERS-CoV neutralization and for developing more effective interventions to prevent or treat MERS-CoV infections. IMPORTANCE MERS-CoV causes a highly lethal respiratory infection for which no vaccines or antiviral therapeutic options are currently available. Based on continuing exposure from established reservoirs in dromedary camels and bats, transmission of MERS-CoV into humans and future outbreaks are expected. Using structurally defined probes for the MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein (S), the target for neutralizing antibodies, single B cells were sorted from a convalescent human and immunized nonhuman primates (NHPs). MAbs produced from paired immunoglobulin gene sequences were mapped to multiple epitopes within and outside the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and protected against lethal MERS infection in a murine model following passive immunization. Importantly, combining MAbs targeting distinct epitopes prevented viral neutralization escape from RBD-directed MAbs. These data suggest that antibody responses to multiple domains on CoV spike protein may improve immunity and will guide future vaccine and therapeutic development efforts.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein is a trimeric, membrane-anchored glycoprotein capable of mediating both virus-target cell membrane fusion to initiate infection and cell-cell fusion, even in the absence of the attachment glycoprotein. The F protein is initially expressed in a precursor form, whose functional capabilities are activated by proteolysis at two sites between the F 1 and F 2 subunits. This cleavage results in expression of the metastable and high-energy prefusion conformation. To mediate fusion, the F protein is triggered by an unknown stimulus, causing the F 1 subunit to refold dramatically while F 2 changes minimally. Hypothesizing that the most likely site for interaction with a target cell component would be the top, or apex, of the protein, we determined the importance of the residues in the apical loop of F 2 by alanine scanning mutagenesis analysis. Five residues were not important, two were of intermediate importance, and all four lysines and one isoleucine were essential. Alanine replacement did not result in the loss of the pre-F conformation for any of these mutants. Each of the four lysines required its specific charge for fusion function. Alanine replacement of the three essential lysines on the ascent to the apex hindered fusion following a forced fusion event, suggesting that these residues are involved in refolding. Alanine mutations at Ile64, also on the ascent to the apex, and Lys75 did not prevent fusion following forced triggering, suggesting that these residues are not involved in refolding and may instead be involved in the natural triggering of the F protein. IMPORTANCE RSV infects virtually every child by the age of 3 years, causing nearly 33 million acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) worldwide each year in children younger than 5 years of age (H. Nair et al., Lancet 375:1545–1555, 2010). RSV is also the second leading cause of respiratory system-related death in the elderly (A. R. Falsey and E. E. Walsh, Drugs Aging 22:577–587, 2005; A. R. Falsey, P. A. Hennessey, M. A. Formica, C. Cox, and E. E. Walsh, N Engl J Med 352:1749–1759, 2005). The monoclonal antibody palivizumab is approved for prophylactic use in some at-risk infants, but healthy infants remain unprotected. Furthermore, its expense limits its use primarily to developed countries. No vaccine or effective small-molecule drug is approved for preventing disease or treating infection (H. M. Costello, W. Ray, S. Chaiwatpongsakorn, and M. E. Peeples, Infect Disord Drug Targets, 12:110–128, 2012). The essential residues identified in the apical domain of F 2 are adjacent to the apical portion of F 1 , which, upon triggering, refolds into a long heptad repeat A (HRA) structure with the fusion peptide at its N terminus. These essential residues in F 2 are likely involved in triggering and/or refolding of the F protein and, as such, may be ideal targets for antiviral drug development.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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