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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-02-25
    Description: Rare copy number variants (CNVs) have a prominent role in the aetiology of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Substantial risk for schizophrenia is conferred by large (〉500-kilobase) CNVs at several loci, including microdeletions at 1q21.1 (ref. 2), 3q29 (ref. 3), 15q13.3 (ref. 2) and 22q11.2 (ref. 4) and microduplication at 16p11.2 (ref. 5). However, these CNVs collectively account for a small fraction (2-4%) of cases, and the relevant genes and neurobiological mechanisms are not well understood. Here we performed a large two-stage genome-wide scan of rare CNVs and report the significant association of copy number gains at chromosome 7q36.3 with schizophrenia. Microduplications with variable breakpoints occurred within a 362-kilobase region and were detected in 29 of 8,290 (0.35%) patients versus 2 of 7,431 (0.03%) controls in the combined sample. All duplications overlapped or were located within 89 kilobases upstream of the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor gene VIPR2. VIPR2 transcription and cyclic-AMP signalling were significantly increased in cultured lymphocytes from patients with microduplications of 7q36.3. These findings implicate altered vasoactive intestinal peptide signalling in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and indicate the VPAC2 receptor as a potential target for the development of new antipsychotic drugs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3351382/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3351382/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vacic, Vladimir -- McCarthy, Shane -- Malhotra, Dheeraj -- Murray, Fiona -- Chou, Hsun-Hua -- Peoples, Aine -- Makarov, Vladimir -- Yoon, Seungtai -- Bhandari, Abhishek -- Corominas, Roser -- Iakoucheva, Lilia M -- Krastoshevsky, Olga -- Krause, Verena -- Larach-Walters, Veronica -- Welsh, David K -- Craig, David -- Kelsoe, John R -- Gershon, Elliot S -- Leal, Suzanne M -- Dell Aquila, Marie -- Morris, Derek W -- Gill, Michael -- Corvin, Aiden -- Insel, Paul A -- McClellan, Jon -- King, Mary-Claire -- Karayiorgou, Maria -- Levy, Deborah L -- DeLisi, Lynn E -- Sebat, Jonathan -- 072894/Z/03/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- GM66232/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG04222/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- MH044245/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH061399/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH071523/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH076431/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH082945/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH083989/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004222/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004222-04S1/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004222-04S2/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R00 HL091061/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH061399/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH076431/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH076431-06/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH082945/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH091350/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 24;471(7339):499-503. doi: 10.1038/nature09884. Epub 2011 Feb 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Stanley Institute for Cognitive Genomics, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 12824, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21346763" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7/genetics ; Cohort Studies ; Cyclic AMP/metabolism ; DNA Copy Number Variations/*genetics ; Female ; Gene Dosage/genetics ; Genes, Duplicate/*genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Inheritance Patterns/genetics ; Male ; Pedigree ; Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II/*genetics/metabolism ; Reproducibility of Results ; Schizophrenia/*genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-02-05
    Description: Genomic structural variants (SVs) are abundant in humans, differing from other forms of variation in extent, origin and functional impact. Despite progress in SV characterization, the nucleotide resolution architecture of most SVs remains unknown. We constructed a map of unbalanced SVs (that is, copy number variants) based on whole genome DNA sequencing data from 185 human genomes, integrating evidence from complementary SV discovery approaches with extensive experimental validations. Our map encompassed 22,025 deletions and 6,000 additional SVs, including insertions and tandem duplications. Most SVs (53%) were mapped to nucleotide resolution, which facilitated analysing their origin and functional impact. We examined numerous whole and partial gene deletions with a genotyping approach and observed a depletion of gene disruptions amongst high frequency deletions. Furthermore, we observed differences in the size spectra of SVs originating from distinct formation mechanisms, and constructed a map of SV hotspots formed by common mechanisms. Our analytical framework and SV map serves as a resource for sequencing-based association studies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077050/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077050/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mills, Ryan E -- Walter, Klaudia -- Stewart, Chip -- Handsaker, Robert E -- Chen, Ken -- Alkan, Can -- Abyzov, Alexej -- Yoon, Seungtai Chris -- Ye, Kai -- Cheetham, R Keira -- Chinwalla, Asif -- Conrad, Donald F -- Fu, Yutao -- Grubert, Fabian -- Hajirasouliha, Iman -- Hormozdiari, Fereydoun -- Iakoucheva, Lilia M -- Iqbal, Zamin -- Kang, Shuli -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Korn, Joshua -- Khurana, Ekta -- Kural, Deniz -- Lam, Hugo Y K -- Leng, Jing -- Li, Ruiqiang -- Li, Yingrui -- Lin, Chang-Yun -- Luo, Ruibang -- Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine -- Nemesh, James -- Peckham, Heather E -- Rausch, Tobias -- Scally, Aylwyn -- Shi, Xinghua -- Stromberg, Michael P -- Stutz, Adrian M -- Urban, Alexander Eckehart -- Walker, Jerilyn A -- Wu, Jiantao -- Zhang, Yujun -- Zhang, Zhengdong D -- Batzer, Mark A -- Ding, Li -- Marth, Gabor T -- McVean, Gil -- Sebat, Jonathan -- Snyder, Michael -- Wang, Jun -- Ye, Kenny -- Eichler, Evan E -- Gerstein, Mark B -- Hurles, Matthew E -- Lee, Charles -- McCarroll, Steven A -- Korbel, Jan O -- 1000 Genomes Project -- 062023/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077009/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077014/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077192/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0701805/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000758/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P01 HG004120/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03S1/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03S2/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03S3/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM059290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-01A1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-04/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-02S1/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-04/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH091350/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005552/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005552-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005552-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG005209/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG005209-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG005209-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Feb 3;470(7332):59-65. doi: 10.1038/nature09708.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21293372" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: DNA Copy Number Variations/*genetics ; Gene Duplication/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; *Genetics, Population ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; *Genomics ; Genotype ; Humans ; Mutagenesis, Insertional/genetics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sequence Deletion/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-10-04
    Description: Structural variants are implicated in numerous diseases and make up the majority of varying nucleotides among human genomes. Here we describe an integrated set of eight structural variant classes comprising both balanced and unbalanced variants, which we constructed using short-read DNA sequencing data and statistically phased onto haplotype blocks in 26 human populations. Analysing this set, we identify numerous gene-intersecting structural variants exhibiting population stratification and describe naturally occurring homozygous gene knockouts that suggest the dispensability of a variety of human genes. We demonstrate that structural variants are enriched on haplotypes identified by genome-wide association studies and exhibit enrichment for expression quantitative trait loci. Additionally, we uncover appreciable levels of structural variant complexity at different scales, including genic loci subject to clusters of repeated rearrangement and complex structural variants with multiple breakpoints likely to have formed through individual mutational events. Our catalogue will enhance future studies into structural variant demography, functional impact and disease association.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4617611/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4617611/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sudmant, Peter H -- Rausch, Tobias -- Gardner, Eugene J -- Handsaker, Robert E -- Abyzov, Alexej -- Huddleston, John -- Zhang, Yan -- Ye, Kai -- Jun, Goo -- Hsi-Yang Fritz, Markus -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Malhotra, Ankit -- Stutz, Adrian M -- Shi, Xinghua -- Paolo Casale, Francesco -- Chen, Jieming -- Hormozdiari, Fereydoun -- Dayama, Gargi -- Chen, Ken -- Malig, Maika -- Chaisson, Mark J P -- Walter, Klaudia -- Meiers, Sascha -- Kashin, Seva -- Garrison, Erik -- Auton, Adam -- Lam, Hugo Y K -- Jasmine Mu, Xinmeng -- Alkan, Can -- Antaki, Danny -- Bae, Taejeong -- Cerveira, Eliza -- Chines, Peter -- Chong, Zechen -- Clarke, Laura -- Dal, Elif -- Ding, Li -- Emery, Sarah -- Fan, Xian -- Gujral, Madhusudan -- Kahveci, Fatma -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Kong, Yu -- Lameijer, Eric-Wubbo -- McCarthy, Shane -- Flicek, Paul -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Marth, Gabor -- Mason, Christopher E -- Menelaou, Androniki -- Muzny, Donna M -- Nelson, Bradley J -- Noor, Amina -- Parrish, Nicholas F -- Pendleton, Matthew -- Quitadamo, Andrew -- Raeder, Benjamin -- Schadt, Eric E -- Romanovitch, Mallory -- Schlattl, Andreas -- Sebra, Robert -- Shabalin, Andrey A -- Untergasser, Andreas -- Walker, Jerilyn A -- Wang, Min -- Yu, Fuli -- Zhang, Chengsheng -- Zhang, Jing -- Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun -- Zhou, Wanding -- Zichner, Thomas -- Sebat, Jonathan -- Batzer, Mark A -- McCarroll, Steven A -- 1000 Genomes Project Consortium -- Mills, Ryan E -- Gerstein, Mark B -- Bashir, Ali -- Stegle, Oliver -- Devine, Scott E -- Lee, Charles -- Eichler, Evan E -- Korbel, Jan O -- P01HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA166661/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002898/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA166661/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HG002898/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01HG007068/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RR029676-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR19895/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008666/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U41HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- WT085532/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT104947/Z/14/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 1;526(7571):75-81. doi: 10.1038/nature15394.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, 3720 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, Washington 98195-5065, USA. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Genome Biology Unit, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 801 W Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Health Sciences Research, Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Yale University, BASS 432 &437, 266 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Yale University, 266 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; The Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Washington University in St Louis, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Human Genetics Center, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1200 Pressler St., Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, 202 Life Sciences Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA. ; The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, 10 Discovery 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA. ; Department of Bioinformatics and Genomics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, North Carolina 28223, USA. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. ; Integrated Graduate Program in Physical and Engineering Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Department of Computational Medicine &Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, 500 S. State Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Department of Biology, Boston College, 355 Higgins Hall, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1301 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. ; Bina Technologies, Roche Sequencing, 555 Twin Dolphin Drive, Redwood City, California 94065, USA. ; Cancer Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Computer Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey. ; University of California San Diego (UCSD), 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 USA. ; Department of Medicine, Washington University in St Louis, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Siteman Cancer Center, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, 1241 Catherine Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Molecular Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300RA, The Netherlands. ; Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; The Department of Physiology and Biophysics and the HRH Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Bin Abdulaziz Alsaud Institute for Computational Biomedicine, 1305 York Avenue, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; The Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute, 413 East 69th St, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; University of Oxford, 1 South Parks Road, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK. ; Department of Medical Genetics, Center for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 3584 CG, The Netherlands. ; Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine, New York School of Natural Sciences, 1428 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Center for Biomarker Research and Precision Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1112 East Clay Street, McGuire Hall, Richmond, Virginia 23298-0581, USA. ; Zentrum fur Molekulare Biologie, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 282, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Department of Computer Science, Yale University, 51 Prospect Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. ; Department of Graduate Studies - Life Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750, South Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26432246" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; Genetics, Medical ; Genetics, Population ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Genomics ; Genotype ; Haplotypes/genetics ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation Rate ; *Physical Chromosome Mapping ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sequence Deletion/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-04-15
    Description: Schizophrenia (SCZD) is a debilitating neurological disorder with a world-wide prevalence of 1%; there is a strong genetic component, with an estimated heritability of 80-85%. Although post-mortem studies have revealed reduced brain volume, cell size, spine density and abnormal neural distribution in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of SCZD brain tissue and neuropharmacological studies have implicated dopaminergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic activity in SCZD, the cell types affected in SCZD and the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease state remain unclear. To elucidate the cellular and molecular defects of SCZD, we directly reprogrammed fibroblasts from SCZD patients into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and subsequently differentiated these disorder-specific hiPSCs into neurons (Supplementary Fig. 1). SCZD hiPSC neurons showed diminished neuronal connectivity in conjunction with decreased neurite number, PSD95-protein levels and glutamate receptor expression. Gene expression profiles of SCZD hiPSC neurons identified altered expression of many components of the cyclic AMP and WNT signalling pathways. Key cellular and molecular elements of the SCZD phenotype were ameliorated following treatment of SCZD hiPSC neurons with the antipsychotic loxapine. To date, hiPSC neuronal pathology has only been demonstrated in diseases characterized by both the loss of function of a single gene product and rapid disease progression in early childhood. We now report hiPSC neuronal phenotypes and gene expression changes associated with SCZD, a complex genetic psychiatric disorder.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3392969/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3392969/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brennand, Kristen J -- Simone, Anthony -- Jou, Jessica -- Gelboin-Burkhart, Chelsea -- Tran, Ngoc -- Sangar, Sarah -- Li, Yan -- Mu, Yangling -- Chen, Gong -- Yu, Diana -- McCarthy, Shane -- Sebat, Jonathan -- Gage, Fred H -- P01 NS028121/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 NS072031/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH083911/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 May 12;473(7346):221-5. doi: 10.1038/nature09915. Epub 2011 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Laboratory of Genetics, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21490598" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology ; Cell Differentiation ; Cells, Cultured ; Cellular Reprogramming/genetics ; Child ; Female ; Fibroblasts/cytology ; Gene Expression Profiling ; *Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects ; Humans ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism ; Loxapine/pharmacology ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Neurites ; Neurons/*cytology/drug effects/*metabolism ; Phenotype ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism/pathology ; Receptors, Glutamate/metabolism ; Schizophrenia/*pathology ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-05-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Malhotra, Dheeraj -- Sebat, Jonathan -- England -- Nature. 2012 May 16;485(7398):318-9. doi: 10.1038/485318a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22596152" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16/*genetics ; DNA Copy Number Variations/*genetics ; Gene Dosage/*genetics ; Head/*abnormalities ; Humans ; Microcephaly/*genetics ; Nuclear Proteins/*genetics ; *Phenotype
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-04-20
    Description: The genetic basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is known to consist of contributions from de novo mutations in variant-intolerant genes. We hypothesize that rare inherited structural variants in cis-regulatory elements (CRE-SVs) of these genes also contribute to ASD. We investigated this by assessing the evidence for natural selection and transmission distortion of CRE-SVs in whole genomes of 9274 subjects from 2600 families affected by ASD. In a discovery cohort of 829 families, structural variants were depleted within promoters and untranslated regions, and paternally inherited CRE-SVs were preferentially transmitted to affected offspring and not to their unaffected siblings. The association of paternal CRE-SVs was replicated in an independent sample of 1771 families. Our results suggest that rare inherited noncoding variants predispose children to ASD, with differing contributions from each parent.
    Keywords: Genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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