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  • 1
    ISSN: 0040-5809
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-21
    Description: Author(s): M. Matsuda, F. K. Lin, R. Yu, J.-G. Cheng, W. Wu, J. P. Sun, J. H. Zhang, P. J. Sun, K. Matsubayashi, T. Miyake, T. Kato, J.-Q. Yan, M. B. Stone, Qimiao Si, J. L. Luo, and Y. Uwatoko Neutron scattering experiments elucidate the magnetic and structural changes that accompany the onset of superconductivity in CrAs at high pressure, offering new insights into the physics of unconventional superconductors. [Phys. Rev. X 8, 031017] Published Fri Jul 20, 2018
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-3308
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-02
    Description: Purpose: Rational targeted therapies are needed for treatment of ovarian cancers. Signaling kinases Src and MAPK are activated in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Here, we tested the frequency of activation of both kinases in HGSOC and the therapeutic potential of dual kinase inhibition. Experimental Design: MEK and Src activation was assayed in primary HGSOC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TGGA). Effects of dual kinase inhibition were assayed on cell-cycle, apoptosis, gene, and proteomic analysis; cancer stem cells; and xenografts. Results: Both Src and MAPK are coactivated in 31% of HGSOC, and this associates with worse overall survival on multivariate analysis. Frequent dual kinase activation in HGSOC led us to assay the efficacy of combined Src and MEK inhibition. Treatment of established lines and primary ovarian cancer cultures with Src and MEK inhibitors saracatinib and selumetinib, respectively, showed target kinase inhibition and synergistic induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in vitro, and tumor inhibition in xenografts. Gene expression and proteomic analysis confirmed cell-cycle inhibition and autophagy. Dual therapy also potently inhibited tumor-initiating cells. Src and MAPK were both activated in tumor-initiating populations. Combination treatment followed by drug washout decreased sphere formation and ALDH1 + cells. In vivo, tumors dissociated after dual therapy showed a marked decrease in ALDH1 staining, sphere formation, and loss of tumor-initiating cells upon serial xenografting. Conclusions: Selumetinib added to saracatinib overcomes EGFR/HER2/ERBB2–mediated bypass activation of MEK/MAPK observed with saracatinib alone and targets tumor-initiating ovarian cancer populations, supporting further evaluation of combined Src–MEK inhibition in clinical trials. Clin Cancer Res; 24(19); 4874–86. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-02
    Description: Recent studies have highlighted the promise of targeting tumor neoantigens to generate potent antitumor immune responses and provide strong motivation for improving our understanding of antigen-T-cell receptor (TCR) interactions. Advances in single-cell sequencing technologies have opened the door for detailed investigation of the TCR repertoire, providing paired information from TCRα and TCRβ, which together determine specificity. However, a need remains for efficient methods to assess the specificity of discovered TCRs. We developed a streamlined approach for matching TCR sequences with cognate antigen through on-demand cloning and expression of TCRs and screening against candidate antigens. Here, we first demonstrate the system’s capacity to identify viral-antigen-specific TCRs and compare the functional avidity of TCRs specific for a given antigen target. We then apply this system to identify neoantigen-specific TCR sequences from patients with melanoma treated with personalized neoantigen vaccines and characterize functional avidity of neoantigen-specific TCRs. Furthermore, we use a neoantigen-prediction pipeline to show that an insertion-deletion mutation in a putative chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) driver gives rise to an immunogenic neoantigen mut- MGA, and use this approach to identify the mut- MGA -specific TCR sequence. This approach provides a means to identify and express TCRs, and then rapidly assess antigen specificity and functional avidity of a reconstructed TCR, which can be applied for monitoring antigen-specific T-cell responses, and potentially for guiding the design of effective T-cell-based immunotherapies.
    Keywords: Immunobiology and Immunotherapy
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-02-10
    Description: Cui Qiu, Yuan-yuan Yi, Rafael Lucena, Meng-juan Wu, Jia-hao Sun, Xi Wang, Quan-wen Jin, and Yamei Wang The key cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 (Cdc2) promotes irreversible mitotic entry, mainly by activating the phosphatase Cdc25 while suppressing the tyrosine kinase Wee1. Wee1 needs to be downregulated at the onset of mitosis to ensure rapid activation of Cdk1. In human somatic cells, one mechanism of suppressing Wee1 activity is mediated by ubiquitylation-dependent proteolysis through the Skp1/Cul1/F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. This mechanism is believed to be conserved from yeasts to humans. So far, the best-characterized human F-box proteins involved in recognition of Wee1 are β-TrCP (BTRCP) and Tome-1 (CDCA3). Although fission yeast Wee1 was the first identified member of its conserved kinase family, the F-box proteins involved in recognition and ubiquitylation of Wee1 have not been identified in this organism. In this study, our screen using Wee1– Renilla luciferase as the reporter revealed that two F-box proteins, Pof1 and Pof3, are required for downregulating Wee1 and are possibly responsible for recruiting Wee1 to SCF. Our genetic analyses supported a functional relevance between Pof1 and Pof3 and the rate of mitotic entry, and Pof3 might play a major role in this process.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9533
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-9137
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Company of Biologists
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  • 6
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; INITIATION ; DEPENDENCE ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; Adolescent ; NICOTINIC RECEPTOR GENES ; HEAVY SMOKING ; ADULT RATS
    Abstract: Context: Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. Objective: To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Data Sources: Primary data. Study Selection: Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. DataExtraction: Uniform statistical analysis scripts were runlocally. Starting with 94 050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD 〉20) and light smokers (CPD 〈= 10) with age-at-onset information, re-ducing the sample size to 33 348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset 〈= 16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset 〉16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with ther s16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Data Synthesis: Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR]=1.45; 95% CI, 1.36-1.55; n=13 843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR=1.27; 95% CI, 1.21-1.33, n=19 505) (P=.01). Conclusion: These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22868939
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-08-16
    Description: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health crisis and a leading cause of infection-related death globally. Although in high demand, imaging technologies that enable rapid, specific, and nongenetic labeling of live Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remain underdeveloped. We report a dual-targeting strategy to develop a small molecular probe (CDG-DNB3) that can fluorescently label single bacilli within 1 hour. CDG-DNB3 fluoresces upon activation of the β-lactamase BlaC, a hydrolase naturally expressed in Mtb, and the fluorescent product is retained through covalent modification of the Mtb essential enzyme decaprenylphosphoryl-β- d -ribose 2'-epimerase (DprE1). This dual-targeting probe not only discriminates live from dead Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) but also shows specificity for Mtb over other bacterial species including 43 nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). In addition, CDG-DNB3 can image BCG phagocytosis in real time, as well as Mtb in patients’ sputum. Together with a low-cost, self-driven microfluidic chip, we have achieved rapid labeling and automated quantification of live BCG. This labeling approach should find many potential applications for research toward TB pathogenesis, treatment efficacy assessment, and diagnosis.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-06-16
    Description: Purpose: Infused autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumor-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells typically surround malignant lesions or penetrate small tumor nodules but fail to penetrate large solid tumors, significantly compromising their antitumor impact. Strategies to overcome this primary challenge are largely required. Experimental Design: We tested the effects of IL12 plus doxorubicin on T-cell penetration and efficacy in solid tumors in a murine lung cancer model, a murine breast carcinoma lung metastasis model, and two human xenograft tumor models bearing large tumors (〉10 mm). Results: Intriguingly, this simple approach increased the numbers, the distribution, and the depth of penetration of infused CD8 + T cells in these tumors, including both TILs and CAR T cells. This combined treatment halted tumor progression and significantly extended survival time. Studies of the underlying mechanism revealed multiple effects. First, the combined treatment maintained the high ratios of immune-stimulatory receptors to immune-inhibitory receptors on infiltrated CD8 + T cells, reduced the accumulation of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells, and enhanced the numbers of T-bet + effector T cells in the tumors. Second, doxorubicin induced chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, which may attract NKG2D + CD8 + T cells to tumors, and this effect was boosted by IL12-induced IFN accumulation in tumors, promoting the penetration of NKG2D + CD8 + T cells. Conclusions: The deep penetration of infused T cells associated with combined IL12 plus doxorubicin yielded striking therapeutic effects in murine and human xenograft solid tumors. This approach might broaden the application of T-cell therapy to a wider range of solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 24(12); 2920–34. ©2018 AACR . See related commentary by Berraondo et al., p. 2716
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-01-11
    Description: Electromagnetic phased arrays at radio frequencies are well known and have enabled applications ranging from communications to radar, broadcasting and astronomy. The ability to generate arbitrary radiation patterns with large-scale phased arrays has long been pursued. Although it is extremely expensive and cumbersome to deploy large-scale radiofrequency phased arrays, optical phased arrays have a unique advantage in that the much shorter optical wavelength holds promise for large-scale integration. However, the short optical wavelength also imposes stringent requirements on fabrication. As a consequence, although optical phased arrays have been studied with various platforms and recently with chip-scale nanophotonics, all of the demonstrations so far are restricted to one-dimensional or small-scale two-dimensional arrays. Here we report the demonstration of a large-scale two-dimensional nanophotonic phased array (NPA), in which 64 x 64 (4,096) optical nanoantennas are densely integrated on a silicon chip within a footprint of 576 mum x 576 mum with all of the nanoantennas precisely balanced in power and aligned in phase to generate a designed, sophisticated radiation pattern in the far field. We also show that active phase tunability can be realized in the proposed NPA by demonstrating dynamic beam steering and shaping with an 8 x 8 array. This work demonstrates that a robust design, together with state-of-the-art complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, allows large-scale NPAs to be implemented on compact and inexpensive nanophotonic chips. In turn, this enables arbitrary radiation pattern generation using NPAs and therefore extends the functionalities of phased arrays beyond conventional beam focusing and steering, opening up possibilities for large-scale deployment in applications such as communication, laser detection and ranging, three-dimensional holography and biomedical sciences, to name just a few.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sun, Jie -- Timurdogan, Erman -- Yaacobi, Ami -- Hosseini, Ehsan Shah -- Watts, Michael R -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jan 10;493(7431):195-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11727.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23302859" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: The balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation is controlled by intrinsic factors and niche signals. In the Drosophila melanogaster ovary, some intrinsic factors promote germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal, whereas others stimulate differentiation. However, it remains poorly understood how the balance between self-renewal and differentiation is controlled. Here we use D. melanogaster ovarian GSCs to demonstrate that the differentiation factor Bam controls the functional switch of the COP9 complex from self-renewal to differentiation via protein competition. The COP9 complex is composed of eight Csn subunits, Csn1-8, and removes Nedd8 modifications from target proteins. Genetic results indicated that the COP9 complex is required intrinsically for GSC self-renewal, whereas other Csn proteins, with the exception of Csn4, were also required for GSC progeny differentiation. Bam-mediated Csn4 sequestration from the COP9 complex via protein competition inactivated the self-renewing function of COP9 and allowed other Csn proteins to promote GSC differentiation. Therefore, this study reveals a protein-competition-based mechanism for controlling the balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Because numerous self-renewal factors are ubiquitously expressed throughout the stem cell lineage in various systems, protein competition may function as an important mechanism for controlling the self-renewal-to-differentiation switch.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pan, Lei -- Wang, Su -- Lu, Tinglin -- Weng, Changjiang -- Song, Xiaoqing -- Park, Joseph K -- Sun, Jin -- Yang, Zhi-Hao -- Yu, Junjing -- Tang, Hong -- McKearin, Dennis M -- Chamovitz, Daniel A -- Ni, Jianquan -- Xie, Ting -- GM64428/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 9;514(7521):233-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13562.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 1000 East 50th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA [2] Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biophysics, 15 Da Tun Road, Beijing 100101, China [3]. ; 1] Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 1000 East 50th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA [2] Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Kansas School of Medicine, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA [3]. ; 1] Center for Life Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [2]. ; Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 1000 East 50th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular Biology and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9148, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815-6789, USA. ; Center for Life Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; 1] Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 1000 East 50th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA [2] Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biophysics, 15 Da Tun Road, Beijing 100101, China. ; Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biophysics, 15 Da Tun Road, Beijing 100101, China. ; Department of Plant Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. ; 1] Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 1000 East 50th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA [2] Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Kansas School of Medicine, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119050" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Binding, Competitive ; *Cell Differentiation ; Cell Proliferation ; DNA Helicases/metabolism ; Drosophila Proteins/metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology/*metabolism ; Female ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism ; Male ; Multiprotein Complexes/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Ovary/cytology ; Peptide Hydrolases/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Ubiquitins/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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