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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Objective Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Studies have shown bacterial colonisation after FMT, but data on viral alterations in CDI are scarce. We investigated enteric virome alterations in CDI and the association between viral transfer and clinical outcome in patients with CDI. Design Ultra-deep metagenomic sequencing of virus-like particle preparations and bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing were performed on stool samples from 24 subjects with CDI and 20 healthy controls. We longitudinally assessed the virome and bacterial microbiome changes in nine CDI subjects treated with FMT and five treated with vancomycin. Enteric virome alterations were assessed in association with treatment response. Results Subjects with CDI demonstrated a significantly higher abundance of bacteriophage Caudovirales and a lower Caudovirales diversity, richness and evenness compared with healthy household controls. Significant correlations were observed between bacterial families Proteobacteria , Actinobacteria and Caudovirales taxa in CDI. FMT treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the abundance of Caudovirales in CDI. Cure after FMT was observed when donor-derived Caudovirales contigs occupied a larger fraction of the enteric virome in the recipients (p=0.024). In treatment responders, FMT was associated with alterations in the virome and the bacterial microbiome, while vancomycin treatment led to alterations in the bacterial community alone. Conclusions In a preliminary study, CDI is characterised by enteric virome dysbiosis. Treatment response in FMT was associated with a high colonisation level of donor-derived Caudovirales taxa in the recipient. Caudovirales bacteriophages may play a role in the efficacy of FMT in CDI. Trial registration number NCT02570477
    Keywords: Open access, Editor's choice
    Print ISSN: 0017-5749
    Electronic ISSN: 1468-3288
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing Group
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: Synthetic methods produce libraries of colloidal nanocrystals with tunable physical properties by tailoring the nanocrystal size, shape, and composition. Here, we exploit colloidal nanocrystal diversity and design the materials, interfaces, and processes to construct all-nanocrystal electronic devices using solution-based processes. Metallic silver and semiconducting cadmium selenide nanocrystals are deposited to form high-conductivity and high-mobility thin-film electrodes and channel layers of field-effect transistors. Insulating aluminum oxide nanocrystals are assembled layer by layer with polyelectrolytes to form high-dielectric constant gate insulator layers for low-voltage device operation. Metallic indium nanocrystals are codispersed with silver nanocrystals to integrate an indium supply in the deposited electrodes that serves to passivate and dope the cadmium selenide nanocrystal channel layer. We fabricate all-nanocrystal field-effect transistors on flexible plastics with electron mobilities of 21.7 square centimeters per volt-second.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Choi, Ji-Hyuk -- Wang, Han -- Oh, Soong Ju -- Paik, Taejong -- Sung, Pil -- Sung, Jinwoo -- Ye, Xingchen -- Zhao, Tianshuo -- Diroll, Benjamin T -- Murray, Christopher B -- Kagan, Cherie R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):205-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0371.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Complex Assemblies of Soft Matter, CNRS-SOLVAY-PENN UMI 3254, Bristol, PA 19007-3624, USA. Rare Metals Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-350, Korea. ; Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713, Korea. ; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Complex Assemblies of Soft Matter, CNRS-SOLVAY-PENN UMI 3254, Bristol, PA 19007-3624, USA. ; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-747, Korea. ; Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. kagan@seas.upenn.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124455" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 ( Tet1 ) initiates DNA demethylation by converting 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) at CpG-rich regions of genes, which have key roles in adult neurogenesis and memory. In addition, the overexpression of Tet1 with 5-hmC alteration in patients with psychosis has also been reported, for instance in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. The mechanism underlying Tet1 overexpression in the brain; however, is still elusive. In the present study, we found that Tet1-transgenic (Tet1-TG) mice displayed abnormal behaviors involving elevated anxiety and enhanced fear memories. We confirmed that Tet1 overexpression affected adult neurogenesis with oligodendrocyte differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Tet1-TG mice. In addition, Tet1 overexpression induced the elevated expression of immediate early genes, such as Egr1 , c-fos , Arc , and Bdnf , followed by the activation of intracellular calcium signals ( i.e. , CamKII, ERK, and CREB) in prefrontal and hippocampal neurons. The expression of GABA receptor subunits ( Gabra2 and Gabra4 ) fluctuated in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. We evaluated the effects of Tet1 overexpression on intracellular calcium-dependent cascades by activating the Egr1 promoter in vitro . Tet1 enhanced Egr1 expression, which may have led to alterations in Gabra2 and Gabra4 expression in neurons. Taken together, we suggest that the Tet1 overexpression in our Tet1-TG mice can be applied as an effective model for studying various stress-related diseases that show hyperactivation of intracellular calcium-dependent cascades in the brain.—Kwon, W., Kim, H.-S., Jeong, J., Sung, Y., Choi, M., Park, S., Lee, J., Jang, S., Kim, S. H., Lee, S., Kim, M. O., Ryoo, Z. Y. Tet1 overexpression leads to anxiety-like behavior and enhanced fear memories via the activation of calcium-dependent cascade through Egr1 expression in mice.
    Print ISSN: 0892-6638
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-6860
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Keywords: CLASSIFICATION ; BRAF ; uveal melanoma ; NEVI ; SOMATIC MUTATIONS ; MORPHOLOGIC FEATURES ; SPITZ TUMORS
    Abstract: Recently a group of spitzoid melanocytic proliferations with loss of BAP1 expression has been reported. The lesions may occur sporadically or as part of a familial cancer syndrome. They have distinct histopathologic features characterized by a nevus-like silhouette and cytologic composition of large epithelioid melanocytes with oval vesicular nuclei, distinct nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm with well-defined cytoplasmic borders. A characteristic immunohistochemical finding is loss of nuclear labeling for BAP1. In contrast to classic Spitz nevi, the lesions carry the BRAF(V600E) mutation. They may present as a pure large epithelioid cell proliferation or as a combined lesion in association with a conventional nevus. Here we report a series of 8 combined melanocytic lesions, in which a dominant large epithelioid cell proliferation with loss of BAP1 expression was associated and intimately admixed with a BAP1-positive conventional nevus. These biphenotypic lesions were from 6 patients, 3 female and 3 male, ranging in age from 16 to 59 years. Immunohistochemical analysis for BAP1 showed loss of nuclear labeling confined to the large epithelioid melanocyte sub-population. The conventional melanocytes retained BAP1 expression. Both large epithelioid and conventional melanocytes were immunoreactive with the monoclonal antibody VE1, which recognizes the protein encoded by mutant BRAF(V600E). In 6 cases the conventional nevus component was a compound nevus of small "type B" melanocytes. In 2 cases, the nevus remnant was entirely intradermal. The lesions described herein may represent a peculiar combined melanocytic nevus variant. However, longer follow-up and more studies are needed to determine the biological potential of the BAP1-negative melanocyte proliferations.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23026932
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0301-0104
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0301-0104
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0301-0104
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Bleeding peptic ulcers ; Endoscopic haemostasis ; Heater probe
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fifty-six patients with actively bleeding peptic ulcers were treated with the heater-probe unit. Initial haemostasis was achieved in 48 patients (85.7%). The mean number of heater-probe applications was 6.7 pulses at a setting of 25–30 J. Rebleeding occurred in 11 patients (19.6%). Five were successfully treated with repeat heater-probe treatment, 5 required emergency surgery, and 1 rebleeding was stopped by adrenaline injection. The complications included one perforation in a patient with duodenal ulcer. The overall mortality was 2/56 (3.6%). Heater-probe treatment is an effective and safe haemostatic method for controlling actively bleeding ulcers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Autonomic neurons of sacral cord ; Selective vulnerability ; Degenerative disorders of neurons ; Vesicorectal function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Further evidence is presented that the Onuf's nucleus (or “colonne en torsade” of Laruelle) and the intermediolateral nucleus of the sacral cord share common selective vulnerability with the thoracolumbar intermediolateral nucleus in ALS, anterior poliomyelitis and “neuronal intranuclear hyaline inclusion disease”. Sparing of the sacral nuclei in the motor neuron diseases and neuronal loss of the nuclei in the multisystem atrophy are correlated well with normal and disturbed vesicorectal function. The clinicopathological evidence strongly supports the view that the Onuf's nucleus represents autonomic neurons much as the intermediolateral nucleus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Neuronal intranuclear hyaline inclusions ; Multisystem atrophy ; Autofluorescence and ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Light, fluorescence, and electron microscopic features of intranuclear hyaline inclusions of neurons associated with multisystem atrophy in a 21-year-old woman are described. The neuronal inclusions resemble Marinesco bodies on light microscopy but differ from the latter in their distribution, autofluorescence, and ultrastructure. They are widespread in almost all central, peripheral, and autonomic neurons and are generally larger than Marinesco bodies. The inclusions emit yellow-green autofluorescence with ultraviolet light between 470 and 530 nm of the spectrum and are ultrastructurally composed of haphazardly arranged, uniform, fine, straight filaments (8–9 nm in diameter). The neuronal inclusions have neither the ultrastructural feature of known viral inclusions nor are associated with virus particles. Their chemical nature and pathogenesis remain to be elucidated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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