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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-08-16
    Description: Resulting from the drastic increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentration day by day, global warming has become a serious environmental issue nowadays. The fixation of CO 2 to obtain desirable, economically competitive chemicals has recently received considerable attention. This work investigates the fixation of CO 2 along with three bromopyridines via a facile electrochemical method using a silver cathode to synthesize picolinic acids, which are important industrial and fine chemicals. Cyclic voltammetry is employed to investigate the cyclic voltammetric behaviour of bromopyridines. In addition, systematic study is conducted to study the relationships between the picolinic acids' yield and the electrolysis conditions and intrinsic parameters. The results show that the target picolinic acids' yields are strongly dependent on various conditions such as solvent, supporting electrolyte, current density, cathode material, charge passed, temperature and the nature of the substrates. Moreover, in the studied electrode materials such as Ag, Ni, Ti, Pt and GC, electrolysis and cyclic voltammetry show that Ag has a good electrocatalytic effect on the reduction and carboxylation of bromopyridine. This facile electrochemical route for fixation of CO 2 provides an indispensable reference for the conversion and utilization of CO 2 under mild conditions.
    Keywords: synthetic chemistry, environmental chemistry, green chemistry
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-16
    Description: At present, the disadvantage of powder epoxy adhesive is the limited application area. In order to widen the application range of powder epoxy adhesive from heat-resistant substrates (such as metals) to heat-sensitive substrates (such as plastic products, cardboard and wood), it is necessary to decrease the curing temperature. In this article, a series of fast-curing powder epoxy adhesives were prepared by the melt blending method with bisphenol A epoxy resin (E-20), hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as a curing agent and 2-methylimidazole (2-MI) as an accelerant. The structure and properties of the E-20/HMTA/2-MI systems were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analyser and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). 2-MI added into the E-20/HMTA systems can simultaneously enhance toughness, tensile strength, glass transition temperature ( T g ) and thermal stability in comparison with the E-20/HMTA systems. The best mechanical properties were obtained at 100/8/0.6 weight ratio of the E-20/HMTA/2-MI systems. DSC experiments revealed that the exothermic peak of the E-20/HMTA/2-MI system was about 55°C lower than that of the E-20/HMTA system. The activation energy of the cure reaction was determined by both Kissinger's and Ozawa's methods at any heating rates. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor were about 100.3 kJ mol –1 and 3.57 x 10 11 s –1 , respectively. According to the KAS method, the curing time of the E-20/HMTA/2-MI systems was predicted by evaluating the relationship between temperature and curing time.
    Keywords: materials science
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-09
    Description: Energy-efficient production of water from desert air has not been developed. A proof-of-concept device for harvesting water at low relative humidity was reported; however, it used external cooling and was not desert-tested. We report a laboratory-to-desert experiment where a prototype using up to 1.2 kg of metal-organic framework (MOF)–801 was tested in the laboratory and later in the desert of Arizona, USA. It produced 100 g of water per kilogram of MOF-801 per day-and-night cycle, using only natural cooling and ambient sunlight as a source of energy. We also report an aluminum-based MOF-303, which delivers more than twice the amount of water. The desert experiment uncovered key parameters pertaining to the energy, material, and air requirements for efficient production of water from desert air, even at a subzero dew point.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a conserved cellular plasticity program that is reactivated in carcinoma cells and drives metastasis. Although EMT is well studied its regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, to identify novel regulators of EMT, a data mining approach was taken using published microarray data and a group of deubiquitinases (DUB) were found to be upregulated in cells that have undergone EMT. Here, it is demonstrated that one DUB, ubiquitin-specific peptidase 11 (USP11), enhances TGFβ-induced EMT and self-renewal in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells. Furthermore, modulating USP11 expression in human breast cancer cells altered the migratory capacity in vitro and metastasis in vivo . Moreover, elevated USP11 expression in human breast cancer patient clinical specimens correlated with decreased survival. Mechanistically, modulating USP11 expression altered the stability of TGFβ receptor type II (TGFBR2) and TGFβ downstream signaling in human breast cancer cells. Together, these data suggest that deubiquitination of TGFBR2 by USP11 effectively spares TGFBR2 from proteasomal degradation to promote EMT and metastasis. Implications: USP11 regulates TGFβ-induced epithelial–mesenchymal plasticity and human breast cancer metastasis and may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 16(7); 1172–84. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1541-7786
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3125
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-15
    Description: Purpose: Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) contribute to the progression and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) resistance of prostate cancer. As CSCs depend on their specific niche, including tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), elucidating the network between CSCs and TAMs may help to effectively inhibit the progression and ADT resistance of prostate cancer. Experimental Design: The underlying intracellular mechanism that sustains the stem-like characteristics of CSCs in prostate cancer was assessed via RNA sequencing, co-immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and other assays. A coculture system and cytokine antibody arrays were used to examine the interaction network between CSCs and TAMs. In addition, an orthotopic prostate cancer model was established to evaluate the in vivo effects of the combined targeting of CSCs and their interaction with TAMs on ADT resistance. Results: Autophagy-related gene 7 (ATG7) facilitated the transcription of OCT4 via β-catenin, which binds to the OCT4 promoter, promoting CSC characteristics in prostate cancer, including self-renewal, tumor initiation, and drug resistance. In addition, CSCs remodeled their specific niche by educating monocytes/macrophages toward TAMs, and the CSC-educated TAMs reciprocally promoted the stem-like properties of CSCs, progression and ADT resistance of prostate cancer via IL6/STAT3. Furthermore, the combined targeting of CSCs and their interaction with TAMs by inhibiting ATG7/OCT4 and IL6 receptor effectively ameliorated ADT resistance in an orthotopic prostate cancer model. Conclusions: Targeting CSCs and their niche may prove to be a more powerful strategy than targeting CSCs alone, providing a rational approach to ameliorating ADT resistance in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 24(18); 4612–26. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-10-23
    Description: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) belongs to the picornavirus family and was first isolated in CA, USA, in 1962. EV-D68 can cause severe cranial nerve system damage such as flaccid paralysis and acute respiratory diseases such as pneumonia. There are currently no efficient therapeutic methods or effective prophylactics. In this study, we isolated the mAb A6-1 from an EV-D68–infected rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ) and found that the Ab provided effective protection in EV-D68 intranasally infected suckling mice. We observed that A6-1 bound to the DE loop of EV-D68 VP1 and interfered with the interaction between the EV-D68 virus and α2,6-linked sialic acids of the host cell. The production of A6-1 and its Ab properties present a bridging study for EV-D68 vaccine design and provide a tool for analyzing the process by which Abs can inhibit EV-D68 infection.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: In the steady state, tumors harbor several populations of dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid cells that are key regulators of the intratumoral immune environment. Among these cells, migratory CD103 + cross-presenting DCs are thought to be critical for tumor-specific CTL responses and tumor resistance. However, it is unclear whether this prominent role also extends to immunotherapy. We used a murine orthotopic mammary tumor model, as well as Clec9A–diphtheria toxin receptor mice that can be depleted of the specialized cross-presenting CD8α + and CD103 + DC1 subsets, to investigate the role of these DCs in immunotherapy. Treatment with monosodium urate crystals and mycobacteria at the tumor site delayed tumor growth and required DC1s for efficacy. In contrast, treatment with poly I:C was equally effective regardless of DC1 depletion. Neither treatment affected myeloid-derived suppressor cell numbers in the spleen or tumor. Similar experiments using subcutaneous B16 melanoma tumors in BATF3-knockout mice confirmed that CD103 + DCs were not necessary for successful poly I:C immunotherapy. Nevertheless, adaptive immune responses were essential for the response to poly I:C, because mice depleted of CD8 + T cells or all DC subsets were unable to delay tumor growth. In vivo experiments showed that DC1 and DC2 subsets were able to take up tumor Ags, with DC2s making up the larger proportion of lymph node DCs carrying tumor material. Both DC subsets were able to cross-present OVA to OT-I T cells in vitro. Thus, immunotherapy with poly I:C enables multiple DC subsets to cross-present tumor Ag for effective antitumor immune responses.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background/Aim: Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis using patient urine samples represents a non-invasive and more convenient method than the conventional biopsy and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. This study intended to identify a biomarker panel to distinguish PCa from benign prostate using urine samples. Materials and Methods: We identified six biomarkers with differential gene expression in 154 PCa and benign prostate specimens. We then determined mRNA expression signature and the diagnostic performance of the 6-biomarker panel in 156 urine samples from patients with PCa and benign disease. Results: The 6-biomarker panel distinguished PCa from benign prostate cases with sensitivity of 80.6%, specificity of 62.9% and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.803 (p〈0.0001), whereas serum PSA at 4 ng/ml cutoff had sensitivity of 95.5%, specificity of 20.2% and AUC of 0.521 (p〈0.0001). Conclusion: The 6-biomarker panel for use in urine samples was able to distinguish PCa from benign prostate with higher specificity and accuracy than PSA and may be useful in clinical settings.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: Arresting of miR-186 and releasing of H19 by DDX43 facilitate tumorigenesis and CML progression Arresting of miR-186 and releasing of H19 by 〈i〉DDX43〈/i〉 facilitate tumorigenesis and CML progression, Published online: 16 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41388-018-0146-y Arresting of miR-186 and releasing of H19 by DDX43 facilitate tumorigenesis and CML progression
    Print ISSN: 0950-9232
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), including enzalutamide, induces resistance in prostate cancer; ADT resistance is associated with neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). This study aimed to investigate the association between enzalutamide-induced NED and TAMs and its mechanism. Experimental Design: The association between enzalutamide-induced NED and TAMs was investigated by IHC using prostate cancer tissues, enzalutamide-resistant mouse xenografts, and a coculture system. The underlying mechanisms were assessed using in vitro cytokine antibody arrays, ELISAs, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and other methods. An orthotopic prostate cancer mouse model was established to evaluate the in vivo effects of combined IL6 receptor (IL6R) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) inhibition on enzalutamide resistance. Results: High CD163 expression was observed in ADT-treated prostate cancer or castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) tissues with high levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and chromogranin A (CHGA) and in enzalutamide-resistant xenografts, indicating the crucial roles of NED and TAMs in enzalutamide resistance. Specifically, enzalutamide-induced HMGB1 expression facilitated TAM recruitment and polarization and drove NED via β-catenin stabilization. HMGB1-activated TAMs secreted IL6 to augment enzalutamide-induced NED and directly promote HMGB1 transcription via STAT3. Finally, inhibition of the IL6/STAT3 pathway by tocilizumab combined with HMGB1 knockdown inhibited enzalutamide-induced resistance in an orthotopic prostate cancer mouse model. Conclusions: Enzalutamide elevates HMGB1 levels, which recruits and activates TAMs. Moreover, IL6 secreted by HMGB1-activated TAMs facilitates the enzalutamide-induced NED of prostate cancer, forming a positive feedback loop between NED in prostate cancer and TAMs. The combined inhibition of IL6R and HMGB1 may serve as a new treatment for enzalutamide resistance in patients with advanced or metastatic prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 24(3); 708–23. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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