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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-01-13
    Description: Exercise benefits a variety of organ systems in mammals, and some of the best-recognized effects of exercise on muscle are mediated by the transcriptional co-activator PPAR-gamma co-activator-1 alpha (PGC1-alpha). Here we show in mouse that PGC1-alpha expression in muscle stimulates an increase in expression of FNDC5, a membrane protein that is cleaved and secreted as a newly identified hormone, irisin. Irisin acts on white adipose cells in culture and in vivo to stimulate UCP1 expression and a broad program of brown-fat-like development. Irisin is induced with exercise in mice and humans, and mildly increased irisin levels in the blood cause an increase in energy expenditure in mice with no changes in movement or food intake. This results in improvements in obesity and glucose homeostasis. Irisin could be therapeutic for human metabolic disease and other disorders that are improved with exercise.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3522098/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3522098/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bostrom, Pontus -- Wu, Jun -- Jedrychowski, Mark P -- Korde, Anisha -- Ye, Li -- Lo, James C -- Rasbach, Kyle A -- Bostrom, Elisabeth Almer -- Choi, Jang Hyun -- Long, Jonathan Z -- Kajimura, Shingo -- Zingaretti, Maria Cristina -- Vind, Birgitte F -- Tu, Hua -- Cinti, Saverio -- Hojlund, Kurt -- Gygi, Steven P -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK54477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K99 DK087853/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK054477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK061562/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 11;481(7382):463-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10777.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22237023" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipocytes/cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, Brown/*cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, White/*cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Respiration/drug effects ; Cells, Cultured ; Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology ; Energy Metabolism/drug effects/genetics/physiology ; Exercise/physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects/genetics ; Hormones/metabolism/secretion ; Humans ; Insulin Resistance/physiology ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Ion Channels/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Transgenic ; Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism ; Models, Animal ; Muscle Cells/metabolism ; Obesity/blood/chemically induced/prevention & control ; Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology ; Plasma/chemistry ; Subcutaneous Fat/cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; *Thermogenesis/drug effects/genetics ; Trans-Activators/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism/secretion ; Transcription Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-10-25
    Description: Phospholipase A(2)(PLA(2)) enzymes are considered the primary source of arachidonic acid for cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Here, we show that a distinct pathway exists in brain, where monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) hydrolyzes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol to generate a major arachidonate precursor pool for neuroinflammatory prostaglandins. MAGL-disrupted animals show neuroprotection in a parkinsonian mouse model. These animals are spared the hemorrhaging caused by COX inhibitors in the gut, where prostaglandins are instead regulated by cytosolic PLA(2). These findings identify MAGL as a distinct metabolic node that couples endocannabinoid to prostaglandin signaling networks in the nervous system and suggest that inhibition of this enzyme may be a new and potentially safer way to suppress the proinflammatory cascades that underlie neurodegenerative disorders.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249428/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249428/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nomura, Daniel K -- Morrison, Bradley E -- Blankman, Jacqueline L -- Long, Jonathan Z -- Kinsey, Steven G -- Marcondes, Maria Cecilia G -- Ward, Anna M -- Hahn, Yun Kyung -- Lichtman, Aron H -- Conti, Bruno -- Cravatt, Benjamin F -- 5P01DA009789/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- AG028040/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- DA017259/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DA026261/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- F31 DA026261-03/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- K99 DA030908/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- K99 DA030908-01/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- K99DA030908/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- P01 DA009789/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- P01 DA009789-14/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- P01 DA017259/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- P01 DA017259-08/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- P01DA01725/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R00 DA030908/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R00 DA030908-02/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R00DA030908/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG028040/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG028040-04/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R03 DA027936/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R03 DA027936-02/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R03DA027936/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- T32 DA007027/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- T32 DA007027-33/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- T32DA007027/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Nov 11;334(6057):809-13. doi: 10.1126/science.1209200. Epub 2011 Oct 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology and Department of Chemical Physiology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. dnomura@berkeley.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021672" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arachidonic Acid/metabolism ; Arachidonic Acids/*metabolism ; Benzodioxoles/pharmacology ; Brain/drug effects/*metabolism/pathology ; Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators/*metabolism ; Cyclooxygenase 1/metabolism ; Cytokines/metabolism ; Eicosanoids/metabolism ; *Endocannabinoids ; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Glycerides/*metabolism ; Hydrolysis ; Inflammation/*metabolism/pathology ; Inflammation Mediators/pharmacology ; Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology ; Liver/metabolism ; Lung/metabolism ; Metabolomics ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Monoacylglycerol Lipases/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism ; Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology ; Parkinsonian Disorders/metabolism/pathology ; Phospholipases A2/genetics/metabolism ; Piperidines/pharmacology ; Prostaglandins/biosynthesis/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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