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  • 1
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    Cambridge, U.K ; New York : Cambridge University Press
    Keywords: Durkheim, Emile,, 1858-1917. ; Durkheim, Émile,, 1858-1917, Et le réalisme. ; Realism. ; Réalisme. ; Sociologie, Histoire. ; Sociologie, Méthodologie. ; Sociology, History. ; Sociology, Methodology.
    Notes: The reform that contained all other reforms -- The subtlety of things -- The perfection of personality -- A l'e;cole des choses -- The yoke of necessity
    Pages: xi, 324 p.
    ISBN: 0-511-00732-9
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Trois techniques d'examen radioisotopique sont utiles au diagnostic et au traitement des ischémies myocardiques. 201-Thallium est un analogue du potassium; après administration intraveineuse, sa distribution dans le tissu myocardique est proportionnelle au débit sanguin régional. Les mesures faites avec 201-Thallium au repos et pendant l'effort identifient les zones d'ischémie et de fibröse myocardique et permettent une évaluation fonctionnelle des débits sanguins régionaux. Avec cet isotope, on a pu démontrer, après pontage coronaire, des améliorations de l'irrigation myocardique; la méthode peut donc être utile dans l'évaluation postopératoire. Le 99m-Technetium pyrophosphate se localise dans le tissu myocardique infarci et est donc particulièrement intéressant pour le diagnostic de l'infarctus postopératoire. Cette méthode permet de démontrer les infarctus myocardiques aigus lorsque le diagnostic ne peut être confirmé par la clinique ou par l'électrocardiogramme. L'angiographie par radioisotope est la troisième technique, très prometteuse pour la surveillance des ischémies myocardiques. L'injection d'un embol de traceur et l'enregistrement rapide de l'activité précordiale par une gamma caméra computérisée permettent de mesurer les temps de transit et les volumes moyens des diverses chambres cardiaques, le débit cardiaque, les volumes ventriculaires, et la fraction d'éjection. La méthode donne des mesures en série de la fonction cardiaque et permet d'évaluer la réponse cardiaque à l'effort. Les malades en ischémie myocardique présentent, en réponse à l'accroissement du travail cardiaque, une dilatation aiguë du ventricule gauche, et l'importance de cette dilatation parait bien être proportionnelle à l'étendue de la zone ischémiée. Une revascularisation myocardique réussie supprime cette réponse anormale à l'effort et l'amélioration de la fonction ventriculaire gauche peut être mise en évidence par des épreuves d'effort après pontage coronaire.
    Notes: Abstract Three noninvasive radionuclide techniques are of value in diagnosis and management of patients with myocardial ischemia.201Thallium is an analogue of potassium that is distributed in myocardial tissue in proportion to regional blood flow following intravenous administration. Studies obtained using this agent during rest and exercise identify regions of myocardial fibrosis and ischemia and provide a functional assessment of regional blood flow. Improvement in the distribution of regional myocardial perfusion has been documented following coronary artery bypass grafting, and the procedure may have practical importance in the postoperative assessment of patients.99mTechnetium pyrophosphate is a radiopharmaceutical that localizes in acutely infarcted myocardial tissue and is of particular benefit in the diagnosis of postoperative myocardial infarction. Documentation of acute myocardial infarction by this method is indicated in patients in whom the diagnosis cannot be confirmed by electrocardiograms or other clinical modalities. Radionuclide angiocardiography is a third radionuclide technique that holds great promise in the management of patients with myocardial ischemia. A single bolus injection of tracer with rapid recording of precordial counts using a computerized gamma camera provides measurement of individual chamber transit times and mean volumes, cardiac output, and ventricular volumes and ejection fraction. The study provides serial measurements of cardiac function and permits evaluation of the cardiac response to acute exercise stress. Patients with myocardial ischemia acutely dilate the left ventricle in response to increased cardiac work load, and the magnitude of dilatation appears to be related to the magnitude of ischemia. Successful myocardial revascularization reverses the abnormal response to exercise, and greatly improved left ventricular function can be documented during exercise following coronary artery bypass grafting.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé La thrombose intra-auriculaire provenant d'une tumeur rénale ou surrénale constitue une sérieuse complication. Le diagnostic préopératoire par la tomodensitométrie et la cavographie est capital, ces deux explorations devant être pratiquées en l'absence même de signes d'obstruction veineuse, spécialement si la tumeur est située à droite et si son diamètre est supérieur à 7 cm. Les auteurs rapportent leur expérience qui est limitée au traitement de 3 malades présentant ce type de complication (2 tumeurs surrénales, 1 rénale). Leur préférence va à une large voie d'abord: la laparotomie médiane et sternotomie médiane, car un bypass cardiopulmonaire est indispensable. Cette technique permet d'obtenir un contrôle vasculaire parfait indispensable pour réséquer la tumeur et son extension intraveineuse et intra-auriculaire. Elle est plus simple que l'hypothermie profonde, l'exsanguination totale et l'arrêt complet de la circulation. L'exploration endoscopique périopératoire de la veine cave inférieure et des veines hépatiques en dehors de tout saignement permet de s'assurer que le thrombus a été enlevée dans sa totalité. Une revue de 28 cas rapportés dans la littérature chez qui l'extraction du thrombus avait été pratiquée démontre que la survie à long terme est rare mais le fait qu'il soit possible de soulager efficacement le patient permet de considérer cette intervention comme valable.
    Abstract: Resumen La aparición de un trombo tumoral intra-atrial de origen en un tumor renal o adrenal es un desarrollo de mucha gravedad. La identificación preoperatoria mediante tomografía computadorizado o cavografía es importante, y tales procedimientos diagnósticos deben ser considerados aún en pacientes sin síntomas de obstrucción venosa, especialmente si el tumor está ubicado en el lado derecho y tiene más de 7 cm de diámetro. Informamos nuestra experiencia con el manejo de 3 pacientes con trombos intra-atriales grandes (2 adrenales, 1 renal). Se prefiere el abordaje combinado por línea media abdominal y esternotomía mediana; la circulación cardiopulmonar extracorpórea es esencial. Hipotermia hepática moderada y oclusión del flujo hepático tambien pueden ser necesarios. Esta técnica permite un control vascular efectivo para la resección del tumor y su extensión intravascular y es más simple que la hipotermia profunda, la exsanguinación corporal total y la suspensión circulatoria completa. El examen endoscópico peroperatorio del interior de la vena cava inferior y de las venas hepáticas, bajo condiciones de ausencia de sangre, ayuda a asegurar el que se haya logrado la remoción total del trombo. La revisión de 28 casos informados que fueron sometidos a remoción de trombos intra-atriales sugiere que la supervivencia a largo plazo es rara, pero que la posibilidad de una mejoría sintomática hace que este procedimiento sea válido.
    Notes: Abstract Intra-atrial tumor thrombus arising from a renal or adrenal tumor is a serious development. Preoperative recognition by computed tomographic scanning and cavography is important, and these investigations should be considered even in patients without symptoms of venous obstruction, especially if the tumor is right-sided and greater than 7 cm in diameter. We report here our experience with the management of 3 patients with intra-atrial tumor thrombus (2 adrenal, 1 renal). A combined midline and median sternotomy approach is preferred and cardiopulmonary bypass is essential. Moderate hypothermia and liver inflow occlusion may also be necessary. This technique provides effective vascular control for resection of the tumor and its intravascular extension, and is simpler than profound hypothermia, total body exsanguination, and complete circulatory arrest. Perioperative endoscopic examination of the interior of the inferior vena cava and hepatic veins, under bloodless conditions, helps to ensure that there has been complete removal of the thrombus. A review of 28 reported patients who have had removal of intra-atrial thrombus suggests that long-term survival is rare, but the possibility of symptom relief makes this procedure worthwhile.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2250
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract In the theory of thin lifting surfaces the minimum drag consistent with a given total lift occurs when the downwash, averaged between forward and reversed motion of the wing, has the same value at all points of the wing planform. In Kogan's theory the conditions for minimum drag are determined on the forward sloping characteristic surface touching the trailing edge of the wing and it is shown that such a surface plays the role of the Trefftz plane familiar in subsonic wing theory. This paper shows how Kogan's theory may be applied to determine the drag of elliptic wings at supersonic speed. It appears that such wings have lower drag than the conventional “delta” wing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Between 1966 and 1973, National Severe Storms Laboratory mesonetwork soundings were taken near thunderstorms and squall lines. Thirty-four of these soundings sampled updrafts at various levels. Because of instrumental noise and atmospheric fine structure, many of the individual soundings were hard to interpret. However, significant results were obtained from the data as a whole and from the four fastest updraft cases. Typically, the updrafts were associated with moderate thunderstorms that formed in baroclinic regions with maritime tropical air near the surface overlaid by drier air aloft. The immediate environments were potentially, conditionally, and latently unstable but were stable with respect to parcel displacement from the lifted condensation level. The updrafts were generally located in regions of strong radar reflectivity gradient at 0° antenna tilt. The updraft soundings often showed pseudo-adiabatic lapse rates immediately above the updraft condensation level. Statistical analysis of the data confirms that updrafts are warm core at mid- and upper levels and that they are relatively cool at low levels (below 700 mb). Important effects of perturbation pressure gradient forces are emphasized. We also find that local updraft speed is positively correlated at the 95% confidence level with local potential wet-bulb temperature between 0.9 and 9.3 km MSL. The average vertical velocity is a maximum at a relatively low height (4.8 km MSL); this agrees with other experiments that involve tracking objects released below cloud base. However, flight train icing and other extraneous factors may be influencing this result. The average horizontal winds in the updraft and environment agree with recent conceptual Great Plains thunderstorm models.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Four types of prostanoid receptor are present on pulmonary arterial vessels of man. Thromboxane (TP) receptors mediate constriction and are blocked by antagonists such as BAY u-3405, GR 32191 and EP169. Prostaglandin (PG) EP3 receptors also mediate constriction, the agonist potency ranking being SC 46275 〉 sulprostone 〉 misoprostol≥PGE2; this action needs to be borne in mind when PGE analogues are used therapeutically.2. Prostaglandi. E2 causes relaxation in a few pulmonary artery preparations: an EP2 receptor may be involved. Prostacyclin, acting through IP receptors, consistently produces relaxation and studies are in progress to determine the contribution made by K+-channel opening. Agonist potencies of stable prostacyclin analogues and non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics, such as BMY 45778 and the novel diphenylindole CU 23, on human pulmonary artery and platelets are well correlated. Interestingly, the non-prostanoid mimetics show persistent relaxant effects in vitro, which may be related to their high lipophilicities.3. Prostacyclin and iloprost are being used to treat severe pulmonary hypertension; further study of the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of other IP receptor agonists could produce improve. therapy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Child 18 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2214
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Summary Early intervention programmes have grown rapidly over the last 30 years. Despite numerous attempts to answer the apparently simple question of whether or not early intervention works, results to date have been equivocal. This paper looks at the reasons why this question has not been answered satisfactorily and suggests that this question may not, in fact, be possible to answer in a global sense. It is suggested that questions must be addressed to the evaluation of specific services rather than to the evaluation of early intervention as a whole.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We present a strategy for assembling a physical map of the genome of Drosophila melanogaster based on yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). In this paper we report 500 YACs containing inserts of Drosophila DNA averaging 200 kb that have been assigned positions on the physical map by means of in situ hybridization with salivary gland chromosomes. The cloned DNA fragments have randomly sheared ends (DY clones) or ends generated by partial digestion with either NotI (N clones) or EcoRI (E clones). Relative to the euchromatic portion of the genome, the size distribution and genomic positions of the clones reveal no significant bias in the completeness or randomness of genome coverage. The 500 mapped euchromatic clones contain an aggregate of approximately 100 million base pairs of DNA, which is approximately one genome equivalent of Drosophila euchromatin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Young children with malignant brain tumours have particularly poor survival and manifest severe sequelae of radiation therapy. A multi-institutional pilot study of post-operative primary chemotherapy for children under 3 years with primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) or ependymoma was initiated in 1987. The chemotherapy protocol comprised earboplatin, vincristine and the “eight drugs in 1 day” regimen. Radiation was recommended only if tumour progression or recurrence was documented. A total of 14 patients between 5 and 36 months of age were enrolled. Seven had supratentorial tumours (PNET, pinealoblastoma, intracranial retinoblastoma) with multiple predictors of adverse outcome. Four of these responded to initial chemotherapy but subsequently progressed and all had died by 16 months from diagnosis. The seven patients with infratentorial tumours (three medulloblastomas, four ependymomas) had more favourable predictors of outcome: no meningeal dissemination and gross macroscopic resection in six of the seven cases. One patient progressed rapidly and died within 5 months. The other six are alive at 37–57 months from diagnosis. Four are in continuous complete remission at 57, 51, 41 and 37 months, respectively from the time of their tumour resection. One is described as having stable disease with a persistent radiographic lesion at 41 months from diagnosis. One has relapsed on two occasions and is the only surviving patient to have been irradiated. Intelligence scores for the six long-term survivors have thus for remained within the normal range. It is suggested that some infants with standard-risk ependymoma and, possibly, medulloblastoma may be cured without radiation therapy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 428 (2004), S. 736-738 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The quantification of greenhouse gases present in the Archaean atmosphere is critical for understanding the evolution of atmospheric oxygen, surface temperatures and the conditions for life on early Earth. For instance, it has been argued that small changes in the balance between two potential ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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