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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Homoeologous recombination ; Ras ; SDC25 ; CDC25
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The CDC25 gene from S. cerevisiae encodes an activator of Ras proteins. The C-terminal part of a structurally-related protein encoded by the SDC25 gene is characterised by a Ras-guanine nucleotide exchange activity in vitro whereas the C-terminal part of CDC25 gives no detectable exchange activity. A chimera between the 3′ regions of these two genes was constructed by homeologous recombination. This chimeric gene suppresses cdc25 mutations. When expressed in E. coli, the chimeric product is detectable by antibodies directed against the carboxy-terminal CDC25 peptide and has an exchange-factor activity on the Ras2 protein. Therefore, the carboxy-terminal parts of both the CDC25 and the SDC25 gene products are structurally and functionally similar. The CDC25 part of the chimeric protein contains an intrinsic guanine exchange factor which does not require an additional cofactor.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words RAS ; MSI1/CAC3 ; CAF-1 ; BCY1/PKA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract RAS hyperactivation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to multiple nutritional growth defects associated with overstimulation of the cAMP signaling pathway. Hyperactive RAS can be suppressed by overexpression of MSI1, a subunit of chromatin assembly factor-1 (yCAF-1). MSI1 overexpression suppresses phenotypes induced by increased cAMP content in multiple genetic backgrounds. However, MSI1 does not inhibit cAMP synthesis or total cellular cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity, nor does MSI1 stimulate expression of several cAMP-repressible genes critical for the acquisition of thermotolerance in the stationary phase. Our analysis indicates that yCAF-1 is dispensable for inhibition of hyperactive RAS by MSI1. We demonstrate that in the presence of the PKA regulatory subunit, BCY1, MSI1 inhibits phenotypes of a mutationally activated PKA catalytic subunit. These observations indicate that MSI1 affects PKA function in a BCY1-dependent manner via mechanisms other than direct overall inhibition of PKA catalytic activity. MSI1 appears to provide two distinct roles – in chromatin modeling as a component of yCAF-1, and in the inhibition of RAS signaling by modulating PKA.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 373 (1995), S. 394-394 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR — Reese et al. (Nature 371, 523–527; 1994) published the isolation of two yeast TBP-associated proteins. One of them, named by the authors yTAFII90, corresponds to a gene that we have previously sequenced (L. M. et al Yeast 10, 819–831; 1994). In our paper, we mentioned the ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Cell cycle ; Bud site selection ; Guanine exchange factor ; Ras
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF) activity for Ras proteins has been associated with a conserved domain in Cdc25p, Sdc25p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several other proteins recently found in other eukaryotes. We have assessed the structure-function relationships between three different members of this family in S. cerevisiae, Cdc25p, Sdc25p and Bud5p. Cdc25p controls the Ras pathway, whereas Bud5p controls bud site localization. We demonstrate that the GEF domain of Sdc25p is closely related to that of Cdc25p. We first constructed a thermosensitive allele of SDC25 by specifically altering amino acid positions known to be changed in the cdc25-1 mutation. Secondly, we constructed three chimeric genes from CDC25 and SDC25, the products of which are as active in the Ras pathway as are the wild-type proteins. In contrast, similar chimeras made between CDC25 and BUD5 lead to proteins that are inactive both in the Ras and budding control pathways. This difference in the ability of chimeric proteins to retain activity allows us to define two subclasses of structurally different GEFs: Cdc25p and Sdc25p are Ras-specific GEFs, and Bud5p is a putative GEF for the Rsr1/Bud1 Rap-like protein.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A 3.7 kilobase fragment of Dictyostelium discoideum genomic DNA has been cloned by its ability to complement a yeast ura5 mutation affecting the activity of orotidine-5′-phosphate carboxy-lyase (EC 4.1.1.23). This fragment also complements a yeast ura5 mutation that leads to a defect in orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (EC 2.4.2.10). The orotidine-5′-phosphate carboxy-lyase and the orotate phosphoribosyl transferase activities that result from Dictyostelium gene expression in yeast have been detected. The size of the DNA required for both complementations has been localised to a segment of less than 2 kb. A unique Dictyostelium RNA species of 1,600 base pairs hybridises to this fragment. In vitro deletions in this fragment lead to the simultaneous loss of the two activities. The two enzymatic activities coelute as a protein of 120.000 daltons during gel filtration of a Dictyostelium extract. These results favour the existence, on the cloned Dictyostelium DNA fragment, of a unique structural gene which codes for a bifunctional enzyme carrying the two activities, orotidine-5′-phosphate carboxy-lyase and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: DNA sequence ; Pyrimidines ; Protein evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A Dictyostelium discoideum DNA fragment that complements the ura3 and the ura5 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been sequenced. It contains an open reading frame of 478 codons capable of encoding a polypeptide of molecular weight 52475. This gene, named DdPYR5-6, encodes a bifunctional protein composed of the orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRTase) and the orotidine-5′-phosphate decarboxylase (OMPdecase) domains described for UMP synthase in mammals. The existence of separate domains for the two activities was suspected because deletion of the N-terminal coding segment of the gene eliminated the ura5 but not the ura3 complementing activity. We have now confirmed that the two parts of the open reading frame share homology with known OPRTase and OMPdecase sequences. Several blocks of sequence are conserved among OPRTase from bacteria, fungi and slime mold and one of them corresponds to the consensus sequence for phosphoribosylbinding sites. The OMPdecase domain shows extensive similarity with the yeast and Neurospora crassa enzymes, suggesting that they have evolved from an ancestral gene which was fused to the OPRTase gene in D. discoideum. It is less related to the bacterial enzyme but all these sequences present conserved blocks of homology which could identify the active site. The codon usage is strongly biased in a manner similar to that found for other D. discoideum genes. The flanking DNA contains homopolymers of A and T and alternating sequences that are characteristic of the gene organization in D. discoideum.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Dictyostelium discoideum ; Gene disruption ; 5-Fluoroorotic acid ; UMP synthase ; Uracil auxotrophy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum the two enzymatic activities of the pyrimidine pathway, orotidine-5′-phosphate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.23; OMPdecase) and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (EC 2.4.2.10; OPRTase), are encoded by a single gene (DdPYR5-6). As in higher eukaryotes the bifunctional enzyme is referred to as UMP synthase. Here we present a method that allows efficient generation and selection of mutants lacking UMP synthase. D. discoideum cells are transformed with either of two different types of plasmids. One plasmid type contains no sequences homologous to the UMP synthase gene whereas the other type contains at least parts of this gene. UMP synthase− mutants, which were positively selected for in the presence of 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), were obtained with both plasmids. However, mutation rates were at least one order of magnitude higher if plasmids containing various portions of the UMP synthase gene were used as opposed to plasmids that lack any homology to the UMP synthase locus. Several mutant strains were extensively characterized. These strains lack OMPdecase activity and exhibit in addition to 5-FOA resistance a ura − phenotype. All mutants carry UMP synthase loci with deletions of various extents but integration of transforming plasmids was not detected. This efficient generation of 5-FOA resistance is part of a proposed complex selection scheme which allows multiple rounds of transformation of D. discoideum.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have found that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ras, Cdc25p, interacts with Ssa1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This interaction was observed with GST-fused Cdc25p polypeptides and confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation with the endogenous Cdc25p. Hsp82 appeared also to be co-immunoprecipitated with Cdc25p, albeit to a lower level than Hsp70. In a strain deleted for SSA1 and SSA2, we observed a reduced cellular content of Cdc25p. Consistent with a reduced activity of the cAMP-dependent PKA pathway, the rate of accumulation of both trehalose and glycogen was stimulated in the ssa-deleted strain. Expression of SSA1 reversed these effects, whereas co-expression of SSA1 and PDE2 restored high accumulation. The expression of genes repressed by cAMP, GAC1 and TPS1, fused to β-galactosidase, was also stimulated by deletion of SSA genes. The effect of ssa deletion on glycogen accumulation was lost in a strain deleted for CDC25 rescued by the RAS2ile152 allele. Altogether, these results lead to the conclusion that Ssa1p positively controls the cAMP pathway through Cdc25p. We propose that this connection plays a critical role in the adaptation of cells to stress conditions.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The heat shock transcription factor Hsf1p and the stress-responsive transcription factors Msn2p and Msn4p are activated by heat shock in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Their respective contributions to heat shock protein induction have been analysed by comparison of mutants and wild-type strains using [35S]-methionine labelling and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Among 52 proteins induced by a shift from 25°C to 38°C, half of them were found to be dependent upon Msn2p and/or Msn4p (including mostly antioxidants and enzymes involved in carbon metabolism), while the other half (including mostly chaperones and associated proteins) were dependent upon Hsf1p. The two sets of proteins overlapped only slightly. Three proteins were induced independently of these transcription factors, suggesting the involvement of other transcription factor(s). The Ras/cAMP/PKA signalling pathway cAMP had a negative effect on the induction of the Msn2p/Msn4p regulon, but did not affect the Hsf1p regulon. Thus, the two types of transcription factor are regulated differently and control two sets of functionally distinct proteins, suggesting two different physiological roles in the heat shock cellular response.
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