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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Canada ; cancer etiology ; case-control study ; cohort study ; dietary fiber ; vitamin A ; vitamin C ; vitamin E
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Risk of breast cancer was examined in relation to intake of dietary fiber and vitamins A, C, and E, and food groups which are sources of these dietary constituents, in a cohort of 56,837 women enrolled in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study. Between 1982 and 1987, 519 incident, histologically confirmed cases of breast cancer were identified among women who previously had completed self-administered dietary questionnaires. Their nutrient and food intake was compared with that of 1,182 women who had not developed breast cancer during the follow-up period. Women at the uppermost quintile level of dietary fiber intake had a 30 percent reduction in risk of breast cancer relative to that for women at the lowest quintile level (adjusted odds ratio = 0.68,95 percent confidence interval = 0.46–1.00), and the reduction in risk persisted after adjustment (separately) for total vitamin A, β-carotene, vitamin C, and α-tocopherol. Inverse associations of similar magnitude were observed in association with consumption of pasta, cereals (the trend for which was statistically significant), and vegetables rich in vitamins A and C. Smaller, statistically nonsignificant reductions in risk were observed with increasing intake of dietary retinol, β-carotene, and vitamin C, but the magnitude of these associations was reduced after adjustment for other dietary factors. Vitamin E intake was not associated with altered risk of breast cancer.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Canada ; case-control study ; diet ; males ; prostate cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The relationship between risk of prostate cancer and dietary intake of energy, fat, vitamin A, and other nutrients was investigated in a case-control study conducted in Ontario, Canada. Cases were men with a recent, histologically confirmed diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the prostate notified to the Ontario Cancer Registry between April 1990 and April 1992. Controls were selected randomly from assessment lists maintained by the Ontario Ministry of Revenue, and were frequency-matched to the cases on age. The study included 207 cases (51.4 percent of those eligible) and 207 controls (39.4 percent of those eligible), and information on dietary intake was collected from them by means of a quantitative diet history. There was a positive association between energy intake and risk of prostate cancer, such that men at the uppermost quartile level of energy intake had a 75 percent increase in risk. In contrast, there was no clear association between the non-energy effects of total fat and monounsaturated fat intake and prostate cancer risk. There was some evidence for an inverse association with saturated fat intake, although the dose-response pattern was irregular. There was a weak (statistically nonsignificant) positive association between polyunsaturated fat intake and risk of prostate cancer. Relatively high levels of retinol intake were associated with reduced risk, but there was essentially no association between dietary β-carotene intake and risk. There was no alteration in risk in association with dietary fiber, cholesterol, and vitamins C and E. Although these patterns were evident both overall and within age-strata, and persisted after adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, they could reflect (in particular) the effect of nonrespondent bias.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Canada ; diet ; benign breast disease ; breast cancer ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A case-cohort analysis of the association between diet and risk of benign proliferative epithelial disorders (BPED) of the breast was undertaken within a cohort of 56,537 women who were enrolled in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) and who completed a self-administered dietary questionnaire. (The NBSS is a randomized controlled trial of screening for breast cancer in women aged 40 to 59 years.) BPED are thought to have premalignant potential. Specific hypotheses were that risk of BPED would increase with increasing energy-adjusted fat intake and decrease with increasing energy-adjusted vitamin A and fiber intake. Additionally, we explored the association between calcium intake and risk of BPED. During the active follow-up phase of the NBSS, 657 women in the dietary cohort were diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed incident BPED. For comparative purposes, a subcohort consisting of a random sample of 5,581 women was selected from the full dietary cohort. After exclusions for various reasons, the analyses were based on 545 cases and 4,921 non-cases. Overall, the results were almost uniformly null, and provided little support for the study hypotheses. Rate ratios (95 percent confidence intervals [CI]) for the highest cf the lowest quintile levels for total fat, retinol, β-carotene, fiber, and calcium were 0.88 (CI = 0.65-1.20), 0.97 (CI = 0.71-1.31), 0.94 (CI = 0.70-1.27), 1.11 (CI = 0.82-1.50), and 0.81 (CI = 0.60-1.07), respectively. There were too few cases of atypical BPED for meaningful analysis, but results for those whose BPED showed no atypia were similar to the overall results. Further analyses conducted separately in the screened and control arms of the NBSS also failed to provide strong support for dietary associations, as did those conducted separately for screen-detected and interval-detected BPED.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Diet ; Endometrial cancer ; Macro-nutrients ; Micro-nutrients ; Obesity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To evaluate the role of nutritional factors in the etiology of endometrial cancer, we performed a case-cohort analysis using data from women enrolled in the National Breast Screening Study in Canada from 1980 to 1985. For this analysis, a subcohort was constructed by selecting a 10% random sample from the 56,837 women in the dietary cohort. Cases were the 221 women diagnosed with incident adenocarcinoma of the endometrium during follow-up to December 31, 1993 and ascertained by record linkage to the Canadian Cancer Database. Information on usual diet at enrolment and other epidemiological variables was collected by means of self-administered questionnaires. Hazard ratios were obtained from proportional hazards regression models, with estimation of robust standard errors. We found a strong association of endometrial cancer with body mass index 〉25 kg/m2 (hazard ratio 2.72, 95% CI: 2.06–3.50). Endometrial cancer risk was not associated significantly with intakes of total energy, carbohydrates, proteins, total fat and major fatty acids, total dietary fiber and various types of fibers, vitamin C, E and A, folic acid, β-carotene, lutein, or cryptoxanthin. Some decrease in risk was noted with relatively high intakes of saturated fat, animal fat or lycopene. The associations observed in the study were independent of total energy intake and most non-dietary risk factors. The study suggests that dietary intakes of energy and most major nutrients are not related to the risk of endometrial cancer among Canadian women.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: diet ; body size ; breast cancer ; prognostic factors ; survival
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Nutritional factors have been suggested to play an important role in the prognosis of breast cancer through their effect on tumor characteristics. This study evaluated four tumor characteristics and prognosis in relation to premorbid diet and body size. From a cohort of 89,835 women in the National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) in Canada, data on 676 incident cases of invasive carcinoma of breast, on whom we had dietary information, were used. A high energy intake lowered the likelihood of being ER positive and PR positive but after adjusting for ER status, was still associated with a higher risk of dying of breast cancer. Total fat and various types of fats were associated with a greater likelihood that a woman would be ER and PR positive, however the likelihood of dying from breast cancer was higher with higher fat consumption. There was no significant effect of higher intakes of beta carotene or vitamin C on ER status, nodal status or tumor size, but a significantly lower risk of dying from breast cancer was observed. Higher intake of carbohydrates and calcium was associated with a lowered frequency of ER and PR positive status but also with a lower risk of dying. Of the five indicators of body size studied, higher triceps skinfold thickness was associated with a slightly lower chance of being ER positive, PR positive, and node negative, and a significantly higher likelihood of dying. It appears that while there are significant associations between some of the diet and body size variables and tumor characteristics, the effect of most nutritional factors on prognosis in breast cancer may not be mediated via their effect on tumor characteristics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: alcohol ; breast cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: To study the association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk. Methods: A case–cohort analysis was undertaken within the cohort of 56,837 women who were enrolled in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) and who completed a self-administered dietary questionnaire. (The NBSS is a randomized controlled trial of screening for breast cancer in women aged 40–59 at recruitment.) The cohort was recruited between 1980 and 1985, and during follow-up to the end of 1993 a total of 1469 women in the dietary cohort were diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed incident breast cancer. For comparative purposes a subcohort consisting of a random sample of 5681 women was selected from the full dietary cohort. After exclusions for various reasons the analyses were based on 1336 cases and 5238 noncases. Results: When compared to nondrinkers the adjusted incidence rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for those consuming 〉 0 and  ≤ 10 g of alcohol/day,  〉 10 and  ≤ 20 g/day,  〉 20 and  ≤thinsp;30 g/day,  〉 30 and  ≤ 40 g/day,  〉 40 and  ≤ 50 g/day, and  〉 50 g/day were 1.01 (0.84–1.22), 1.16 (0.91–1.47), 1.27 (0.91–1.78), 0.77 (0.51–1.16), 1.00 (0.57–1.75), and 1.70 (0.97–2.98), respectively; the associated p value for the test for trend was 0.351. Similar findings were obtained when analyses were conducted separately in the screened and control arms of the NBSS, in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, for screen-detected and interval-detected breast cancer, and by levels of other breast cancer risk factors. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that alcohol consumption might be associated with increased risk of breast cancer at relatively high levels of intake.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: diet ; monounsaturated fatty acids ; prostate cancer ; survival
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: To examine the associations between prediagnostic energy, fat, and vitamin A intake and survival from prostate cancer. Methods: Two hundred and seven cases of prostate cancer from Toronto and 201 cases from Vancouver provided diet histories at diagnosis between 1989 and 1992 and were followed for survival from prostate cancer. After exclusions for various reasons, 263 cases (135 from Toronto, 128 from Vancouver) were analyzed in Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Following adjustments for clinical stage, histologic grade, and other factors, significantly lower risks of dying from prostate cancer in the highest compared with the lowest tertiles of monounsaturated fat intakes were observed in each city and in the combined city analyses (combined cities: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.1–0.7). Survival from prostate cancer was significantly better for cases in the highest tertile of energy intake in Toronto (HR = 0.1; CI = 0.01–0.6) in contrast to that in Vancouver where these cases did relatively worse (HR = 2.6; CI = 0.6–10.7). Other nutrients were either not consistently or not significantly associated with prostate cancer survival in the two cities. Conclusions: This bi-center cohort study observed a consistent and significant inverse association between the premorbid intake of monounsaturated fat and risk of death from prostate cancer. The inconsistent results for energy intake between cities could potentially be attributed to non-respondent bias in Toronto.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Canada ; diet ; galactose ; lactose ; ovarian neoplasms ; retrospective studies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A case-control study of dietary factors and cancer of the ovary was conducted during 1989–92 in metropolitan Toronto and surrounding areas of southern Ontario, Canada. Four hundred and fifty women aged 35–79 years, with newly diagnosed, histologically verified, primary epithelial ovarian-cancer were interviewed concerning reproduction and diet. Over the same period, 564 randomly-selected population controls, frequencymatched to the cases within three 15-year age groups, also were, interviewed. From information obtained by quantitative diet history, average daily macro-and micronutrient intake values were calculated through use of the United States Department of Agriculture Food Composition Databank, which was extended and modified for Canadian items and recipes. Analysis was performed with continuous, unconditional logisticregression methods, adjusting for age at interview, number of full-term pregnancies, total duration of oral contraceptive use, and total daily caloric intake. Neither reported history of lactose intolerance, nor a verage daily consumption of lactose or free galactose, were found to be associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Lactose intake or intolerance did not appear to modify the protective effects of parity and oral contraceptive use. Nevertheless, other studies suggest that ovarian galactose metabolism still may have a relationship with risk of ovarian cancer, though more evidence is needed.
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