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  • 1
    Unknown
    Hoboken, N.J : BiblioBytes
    Keywords: Virginia, History.
    ISBN: 0-585-04929-7
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Ximoprofen ; pharmacokinetics ; normal subjects ; hepatic disease ; renal disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetics of ximoprofen, a potent new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, has been investigated in normal healthy subjects and in patients with hepatic or renal disease. After intravenous infusion of 22.8 mg to healthy subjects, plasma ximoprofen concentrations declined in a polyexponential manner with a terminal phase half-life of 1.9 h. The systemic clearance of ximoprofen was 115 ml·min−1 and the volumes of distribution were 18.0 l Vz and 13.8 l Vss. Ximoprofen was 80–90% bound to plasma proteins. The systemic availabilities (f) of orally and rectally administered doses of 30 mg of ximoprofen were 98% and 56% respectively and, in the case of the rectal dose, absorption appeared to be prolonged leading to “flip-flop” kinetics. After single oral doses of 30 mg of ximoprofen to patients with hepatic disease, half-life (2.2 h), peak plasma concentrations (1.55 μg·ml−1 cf 1.04 μg·ml−1 in healthy subjects) and areas under the curve (6.12 μg·h·ml−1 cf 3.54 μg·h·ml−1 in healthy subjects) were significantly different from those in healthy subjects. After single oral doses of 30 mg of ximoprofen to patients with renal disease, pharmacokinetic parameters of half-life (4.0 h), mean residence time (6.0 h) and area under the curve (9.2 μg·h·ml−1) were significantly different from those in healthy subjects. There were no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between patients having differing degrees of renal disease. These data nevertheless suggest that accumulation of ximoprofen in hepatic or renal disease would be of slight or negligible clinical relevance and that no alteration of the dose regimen (up to 15 mg twice daily) may be required when ximoprofen is administered in these disease states.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Genetically modified microorganisms ; Population dynamics ; Earthworm gut ; Pseudomonas fluorescens ; Lumbricus terrestris
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary A laboratory microcosm study was used to investigate the survival and population dynamics of genetically modified microorganisms (GMM) in the gut of Lumbricus terrestris. Three methods of axenic earthworm production were investigated. An antibiotic mixture of streptomycin and cycloheximide was introduced either passively, mixed with sterile soil or cellulose, or actively, by teflon catheter. Worms treated by all methods lost weight but this was least for the catheter method which was also the only method to produce axenic earthworms. Axenic earthworms were used to determine the effect of competition with indigenous gut bacteria on ingested GMM. The GMM used was Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain 10586/FAC510, with chromosomally inserted Lux genes for bioluminescence, and chromosomal resistance to rifampicin. The bacteria were grown up to the mid-exponential phase before inoculation into earthworms. Bacteria in faecal material were enumerated by dilution plate counting using selective agar. The GMM were re-isolated from the casts of both antibiotic-treated and untreated earthworms. Lower concentrations of GMM and higher concentrations of indigenous bacteria in the casts of untreated compared to antibiotic-treated earthworms suggested that competition is a fundamental control on population dynamics of the introduced bacterial inocula ingested by earthworms. The catheter method, developed in this study, is proposed as a technique to contribute to the risk assessment of environmental release of GMM.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Keywords: Connexin36 ; Gap junctions ; ZO-1 ; Pancreas ; Adrenal medulla
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: AbstractThe PDZ domain-containing protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), a well-established component of tight junctions, has recently been shown to interact with various connexin proteins that form gap junctions. We investigated the association of connexin36 (Cx36) with ZO-1 in various cultured cells and tissues. Punctate immunofluorescence labeling for Cx36 was detected in Cx36-transfected HeLa cells, βTC-3 cells, pancreatic islets, and adrenal medulla. Immunofluorescence for ZO-1 was also punctate in cells and tissues, and was colocalized with Cx36 at points of cell–cell contact. Immunoprecipitation of either Cx36 or ZO-1 from cell lysates and tissue homogenates resulted in immunoblot detection of ZO-1 or Cx36, respectively, in immunoprecipitates. A 14-amino acid peptide corresponding to the carboxy-terminus of Cx36 showed binding capacity to the PDZ1 domain of ZO-1, which was eliminated after removal of the last 4 carboxy-terminus amino acids. Low micromolar concentrations of the 14-amino acid peptide produced up to 85% inhibition of Cx36 interaction with the PDZ1 domain of ZO-1. These results provide evidence for molecular interaction between Cx36 and ZO-1 in vitro, and in vivo, and suggest that the interference with Cx36/ZO-1 interaction by short carboxy-terminus peptides of Cx36 may be of value for functional studies of this interaction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Arteriovenous malformation ; Surgery ; Subarachnoid hemorrhage ; Stroke
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Between January 1941 and June 1989, 46 children below the age of 18 with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) were managed. There were 7 patients with AVM diagnosed before the age of 2; 10 patients were diagnosed between the ages of 3 and 10; and 29 patients were diagnosed between 11 and 18. There were equal numbers of male and female patients. Twenty-five of the AVMs were large (〉5 cm longest diameter). All 7 AVMs diagnosed before the age of 2 were large. The usual clinical presentation was congestive heart failure, bruit and an enlarging head. Three patients underwent excision with 2 deaths and 1 excellent result. In 11 patients (aged 3–18) with AVM without history of hemorrhage, 3 had excision with 2 excellent and 1 fair result. Four remained stable. Four developed progressive deficits or hemorrhage. In 10 patients (aged 3–18) with AVM and hemorrhage who were treated medically, 7 (70%) had an episode of re-hemorrhage. Three patients had excision of AVM after re-hemorrhage, but before the age of 18 with an excellent result. Eighteen patients (aged 3–18) with AVM and a single episode of hemorrhage underwent excision with 17 excellent or good results and 1 fair result. The overall mortality was 7%. Eighty-five percent of the children with excision of AVM had an excellent or good result. The best treatment for AVM in children is surgical excision.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Human cerebral capillaries ; Pericytes ; Endothelium ; Gap junctions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Human cerebral tissue has been ultrastructurally studied and gap junctions have been visualized between endothelial cells and pericytes that permit ion exchange. We propose that the functional interrelationship between endothelium and pericytes may play a role in the alteration of capillary diameter for the control of local cerebral blood flow.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Resiniferatoxin and capsaicin are sensory neurone-specific excitotoxins that operate a common cation channel in nociceptors. Resiniferatoxin is structurally similar to capsaicin and to phorbol esters. Specific [3H]-resiniferatoxin binding, which was detected in the membrane (KD value 1.8 ± 0.2 nM) but not cytosolic fraction of rat dorsal root ganglia, could not be displaced by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. Conversely, resiniferatoxin did not displace [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding in either the cytosolic or membrane fraction. Resiniferatoxin and capsaicin both caused translocation of protein kinase C in dorsal root ganglion neurones (EC50 value 18 ± 3 nM). This translocation was greatly reduced but not abolished, in the absence of external Ca2+, suggesting that it was secondary to Ca2+ entry. Resiniferatoxin also caused direct activation of a Ca2+- and lipid-dependent kinase (or kinases) in the cytosolic fraction of dorsal root ganglia, at concentrations (100 nM to 10 µM) higher than required for displacement of [3H]resiniferatoxin binding or translocation of protein kinase C. Capsaicin (up to 10 µM) was unable to mimic this effect. These data imply that although resiniferatoxin-induced translocation of protein kinase C in dorsal root ganglion neurones was mainly indirect, it also caused direct activation of a protein kinase C-like kinase in these cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: HPLC analysis of guanidinium hydrochloride extracts of neonatal and adult rat brain revealed a polypeptide that is present in high concentration in the immature nervous system, but whose levels decline dramatically in the adult. This polypeptide has been isolated and its complete amino acid sequence determined by gas-phase Edman degradation following specific chemical and enzymatic cleavages. The molecule is identified as thymosin β10, a member of a multigene family that encodes a structurally conserved series of small acidic polypeptides of uncertain function. Thymosin β10 is present in the developing nervous system as early as embryonic day 9. Levels subsequently increase to peak values between embryonic day 15 and postpartum day 3, before falling to adult values (about a 20-fold reduction) by postpartum day 14. The elevated levels of thymosin β10 in fetal and neonatal brain correlate with high levels of thymosin β10 mRNA, whereas the low values of the polypeptide in the adult and juvenile are mirrored by an approximate 15-fold reduction in specific mRNA. In comparison, the levels of thymosin β4 polypeptide, a homologue of thymosin β10, only decline by about 20% during the same developmental period. However, the mRNA encoding thymosin β4 is elevated in fetal brain, and its levels decrease approximately four-fold to a stable value around the time of birth. The reason for this discrepancy between thymosin β4 protein and mRNA levels is unknown. Thymosin β10 can also be detected by HPLC in fetal liver, where levels are approximately 5% of those in brain. In liver, thymosin β10 also declines following birth. It is concluded that β-thymosin expression (as measured by steady-state mRNA and polypeptide levels) is both up-and down-regulated during different phases of maturation of the mammalian nervous system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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