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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Motor unit types ; Twitch and tetanic tensions ; Potentiation ; Peroneus tertius muscle ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Motor units of the cat peroneus tertius muscle were systematically analyzed using the criteria established by Burke et al. (1973). On the basis of their speed of contraction and resistance to fatigue, 121 (97%) of 125 motor units examined in ten adult cats could be classified as belonging to one of four types: fast-fatiguable (FF), fast-resistant (FR), fast-intermediate (FI), and slow-resistant (S). Peroneus tertius was found to contain 30% FF motor units, 9% FI units, 39% FR units, and 22% S units. Contraction times of fast motor units (FF, FR, and FI) ranged from 15 to 27 ms and those of S units from 26 to 42 ms. The mean tetanic tensions were 37 g for FF units, 29 g for FI units, 7.5 g for FR units, and 1.1 g for S units. Fast motor units displayed considerable post-tetanic potentiation of twitch tension. Under similar conditions of stimulation, FF units appeared able to potentiate more and faster than FR units.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Extraocular muscle ; Motor units ; Glycogen depletion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In nembutal anesthetized adult cats, intracellular stimulation of single abducens motoneurones was used to elicit glycogen depletion of their muscle units. Stimulation by short trains (13 pulses at 40 Hz) delivered once a second, was applied for 20 to 110 min. The activation of the motor unit was monitored by intracellular recording of motoneurone action potentials and by EMG. After the end of stimulation, the muscle was excised and frozen to be cut in serial sections that were processed for demonstration of either glycogen, ATPases or SDH. In two experiments, a motor unit could be histochemically identified because 10–15 fibres showed zones of complete glycogen depletion measuring about 5 mm in length. All the depleted fibres had the same histochemical profile: ATPases reactions gave dark staining with alkaline preincubation and light staining with acid preincubation whereas SDH activity was low. In other experiments, prolonged stimulation produced either no depletion at all or very limited zones of partial depletion in a few muscle fibres.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Tendon organs ; Ib Afferents ; Motor units ; Motor control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The aim of this study was to investigate whether an individual Golgi tendon organ can signal the contraction of motor units with different physiological properties. The axonal conduction velocity and tetanic tension of motor units were examined in four muscles of the cat leg (peroneus brevis, peroneus longus, tibialis anterior and soleus). The motor units which were found to activate a given tendon organ had contractile properties dispersed over the same range as those of the whole muscle population. The proportion of tendon organ-activating motor units found in the studied samples suggests that altogether, the Golgi tendon organs of a muscle monitor the contraction of every motor unit in this muscle.
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  • 4
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    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 433 (2005), S. 868-873 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The specificity of cortical neuron connections creates columns of functionally similar neurons spanning from the pia to the white matter. Here we investigate whether there is an additional, finer level of specificity that creates subnetworks of excitatory neurons within functional columns. ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2576
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Using an in vitro system for stimulating human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with immobilized Ig, patterns of cytokine production as a function of different Ig classes and subclasses were elucidated. Wells were coated with IgA, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 or IgG4. Equivalent protein content on surfaces of wells was demonstrated by a human kappa chain ELISA. Isolated human PBMC were added to Ig-coated wells and incubated for 24 hrs before supernatants were assayed for cytokines. The IgG subclasses showed differences in cytokine production stimulated from PBMC, with the relative stimulation for TNFα being IgG2 ≥ IgG3 ≥ IgG1 〉 IgG4 and for IL-6 production, IgG2 ≥ IgG3 〉 IgG1 = IgG4. In contrast, the relative stimulation for IL-8 was IgG1 = IgG2 = IgG3 = IgG4. IgA caused less production of TNFα when compared to IgG2, but similar levels of IL-8. Such differences may have important implications in the pathogenesis of immune complex mediated diseases.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Germ-free adult mice, metronidazole-pretreated conventional adult mice, and 9-day-old conventional infant mice were tested as potential recipients of the pathogen being excreted byClostridium botulinum-colonized mice (donors). Animals were bedded with wood shavings, and recipients were exposed to cross-colonization from donors held in other cages in the same isolator. Germ-free adults developed botulism when exposed toC. botulinum type-A- or-B-monoassociated mice; conventional adults and infants were cross-colonized from adults or infants excreting type-A or-B pathogen. The first cross-colonizations occurred before the experimental isolators and their cages of mice were disturbed. Conventional adult and infant mice were colonized within three days of the introduction of lyophilizedC. botulinum spores into the atmosphere of isolators.
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