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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Astaxanthin ; Carotenoids ; Isotopic labeling ; Isotopic labeling ; Total synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The all-E isomer of (4,4′-13C2)astaxanthin (1a) has been prepared by total synthesis starting from commercially available 99% 13C enriched acetonitrile. The labelled astaxanthin was obtained in high purity and with high isotope incorporation. For this synthesis, the C15 + C10 + C15 strategy was used. The central C10-synthon, 2,7-dimethylocta-2,4,6-triene-1,8-dial (3), was coupled with 13C-enriched C15-phosphonium salt 2a. The new synthetic scheme for the preparation of the C15-phosphonium salt is discussed in this paper; the same scheme can be used to label all positions and combinations of positions of the C15-phosphonium salt.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5079
    Keywords: carotenoid ; electron spin resonance ; energy transfer ; geometric isomerization ; optical spectroscopy ; photoprotection ; triplet state
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The spectroscopic and photochemical properties of the synthetic carotenoid, locked-15,15′-cis-spheroidene, were studied by absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism, fast transient absorption and electron spin resonance spectroscopies in solution and after incorporation into the reaction center of Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides R-26.1. HPLC purification of the synthetic molecule reveals the presence of several di-cis geometric isomers in addition to the mono-cis isomer of locked-15,15′-cis-spheroidene. In solution, the absorption spectrum of the purified mono-cis sample was red-shifted and showed a large cis-peak at 351 nm compared to unlocked all-trans spheroidene. Molecular modeling and semi-empirical calculations reveal how geometric isomerization and structural factors affect the room temperature spectra. The spectroscopic studies of the purified locked-15,15′-mono-cis molecule in solution reveal a more stable manifold of excited states compared to the unlocked spheroidene. Reaction centers of Rb. sphaeroides R-26.1 in which the locked-15,15′-cis-spheroidene was incorporated show no difference in either the spectroscopic properties or photochemistry compared to reaction centers in which unlocked spheroidene was incorporated or to Rb. sphaeroides wild type strain 2.4.1 reaction centers which naturally contain spheroidene. The data suggest that the natural selection of a cis-isomer of spheroidene for incorporation into native reaction centers of Rb. sphaeroides wild type strain 2.4.1 is more determined by the structure or assembly of the reaction center protein than by any special quality of the cis-isomer of the carotenoid that would affect its ability to participate in triplet energy transfer or carry out photoprotection.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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