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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Molecular biology reports 4 (1978), S. 3-8 
    ISSN: 1573-4978
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4978
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Proteins present in messenger ribonucleoprotein particles were labeled with [35S]-methionine in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in which synthesis of new ribosomes was inhibited. Poly(A)-protein complexes were isolated from free and membrane-bound polyribosomes by sucrose gradient centrifugation and affinity chromatography on oligo(dT)-cellulose. Both classes of Poly(A)-protein particles contain a poly(A) chain of about 70 adenyl residues and a protein with a molecular weight of 76000 attached to it.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9729
    Keywords: anaerobic ; carbon tetrachloride ; electron donor ; metabolic transformation ; transformation products
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Carbon tetrachloride (52 μM) was biodegraded for more than 72% in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of an external electron donor. The chloride mass balance demonstrated that all carbon tetrachloride transformed was completely dechlorinated. Chloroform and dichloromethane were sometimes also found as transformation products, but neither accumulated to significant levels in comparison to the amount of carbon tetrachloride transformed. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride in the absence of an added electron donor suggests that carbon tetrachloride itself is the source of energy for the biological reaction observed, and possibly the source of carbon for cell growth. No such mechanism is yet known. The pathway of carbon tetrachloride transformation is not clear; it may be dehalogenated by hydrolytic reduction to carbon monoxide or formic acid which are electron demanding transformations. Carbon monoxide or formic acid may be further utilized and serve as electron donor. Complete dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride according to this pathway is independent of a second electron donor or electron acceptor, as with a fermentation process. Vancomycin, an inhibitor of gram positive eubacteria, severely inhibited carbon tetrachloride transformation in batch incubations with an enrichment culture from the reactor, indicating that gram positive eubacteria were involved in carbon tetrachloride transformation. Batch experiments with bromoethanesulfonic acid, used to inhibit methanogens, and molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction in sulfate reducing bacteria, demonstrated that neither methanogens nor sulfate reducers were involved in the complete dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-9729
    Keywords: Biodegradation ; haloacetate ; σ54-dependent regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The DNA sequence upstream of thedhlB gene encoding the haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase ofXanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 was determined and contained an open reading frame, designateddhlC, which encoded a protein with a significant similarity with the family of Na+-dependent symport proteins. ThedhlC gene was subcloned under control of a T7 promoter, and found to encode a polypeptide of 45 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Upstream ofdhlC, a −24/−12 promoter sequence was found. Further upstream, in the opposite direction of transcription, another open reading frame, designateddhlR, with homology with the family of σ54-dependent transcriptional activator proteins was detected. ThedhlR gene was cloned and expressed under the control of a T7 promoter and encoded a polypeptide of 51 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The genetic organization of thedhlB region suggested that the expression ofdhlC anddhlB was controlled by the product ofdhlR and σ54 which may explain the observed overexpression of the haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase under starvation conditions.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biodegradation 5 (1994), S. 249-257 
    ISSN: 1572-9729
    Keywords: chlorinated hydrocarbons ; biodegradation ; 1,2-dichloroethane ; alkanes ; Xanthobacter ; dehalogenase ; adaptation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) is a synthetic compound that is not known to be formed naturally. Nevertheless, several pure microbial cultures are able to use it as a sole carbon source for growth. Degradation of 1,2-DCE proceeds via 2-chloroethanol, chloroacetaldehyde and chloroacetate to glycolate. The genes encoding the enzymes responsible for the conversion of 1,2-DCE to glycolic acid have been isolated. The haloalkane dehalogenase and an aldehyde dehydrogenase are plasmid encoded. Two other enzymes, the alcohol dehydrogenase and the haloacid dehalogenase, are chromosomally encoded. Sequence analysis indicates that the haloacid dehalogenase belongs to the L-specific 2-chloroproprionic acid dehalogenases. From the three-dimensional structure and sequence similarities, the haloalkane dehalogenase appears to be a member of the α/β hydrolase fold hydrolytic enzymes, of which several are involved in the degradation of aromatic and aliphatic xenobiotic compounds.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-9729
    Keywords: anaerobic biotransformation ; carbon tetrachloride ; electron donor ; sulfate reduction ; transformation products ; toxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The removal of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions was studied in an an aerobic packed-bed reactor. Carbon tetrachloride, up to a concentration of 30 μM, was completely converted. Chloroform and dichloromethane were the main transformation products, but part of the carbon tetrachloride was also completely dechlorinated to unknown products. Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria were involved in the reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride to chloroform and dichloromethane since both molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, and vancomycin, an inhibitor of gram-positive bacteria completely inhibited carbon tetrachloride transformation. Carbon tetrachloride transformation by these bacteria was a cometabolic process and depended on the input of an electron donor and electron acceptor (sulfate). The rate of carbon tetrachloride transformation by sulfate reducing bacteria depended on the type of electron donor present. A transformation rate of 5.1 nmol·ml-1·h-1 was found with ethanol as electron donor. At carbon tetrachloride concentrations higher than18 μM, sulfate reduction and reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride decreased and complete inhibition was observed at a carbon tetrachloride concentration of 56.6 μM. It is not clear what type of microorganisms were involved in the observed partial complete dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride. Sulfate reducing bacteria probably did not play a role since inhibition of these bacteria with molybdate had no effect on the complete dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-9729
    Keywords: biodegradation ; 3-chloroacrylic acid ; dehalogenase ; dehalogenation ; hydratase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A coryneform bacterium that is able to utilize cis- and trans-3-chloroacrylic acid as sole carbon source for growth was isolated from freshwater sediment. The organism was found to produce two inducible dehalogenases, one specific for the cis- and the other for trans-3-chloroacrylic acid. Both dehalogenases were purified to homogeneity from cells induced for dehalogenase synthesis with 3-chlorocrotonic acid. The enzymes produced muconic acid semialdehyde (3-oxopropionic acid) from their respective 3-chloroacrylic acid substrate. No other substrates were found. The cis-3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase consisted of two polypeptide chains of a molecular weight 16.2 kDa. Trans-3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase was a protein with subunits of 7.4 and 8.7 kDa. The subunit and amino acid compositions and the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the enzymes indicate that they are not closely related.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-9729
    Keywords: chlorinated hydrocarbons ; biodegradation ; biotransformation ; cometabolism ; gaseous emissions ; waste gas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Chlorinated hydrocarbons are widely used synthetic chemicals that are frequently present in industrial emissions. Bacterial degradation has been demonstrated for several components of this class of compounds. Structural features that affect the degradability include the number of chlorine atoms and the presence of oxygen substituents. Biological removal from waste streams of compounds that serve as a growth substrate can relatively easily be achieved. Substrates with more chlorine substituents can be converted cometabolically by oxidative routes. The microbiological principles that influence the biodegradability of chlorinated hydrocarbons are described. A number of factors that will determine the performance of microorganisms in systems for waste gas treatment is discussed. Pilot plant evaluations, including economics, of a biological trickling filter for the treatment of dichloromethane containing waste gas indicate that at least for this compound biological treatment is cost effective.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-9729
    Keywords: biodegradation ; chlorinated compounds ; Gibbs free energy of formation ; group contribution method ; xenobiotic
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The Gibbs free energy of formation of chlorinated aliphatic compounds was estimated with Mavrovouniotis' group contribution method. The group contribution of chlorine was estimated from the scarce data available on chlorinated aliphatics in the literature, and found to vary somewhat according to the position of chlorine in the molecule. The resulting estimates of the Gibbs free energy of formation of chlorinated aliphatic compounds indicate that both reductive dechlorination and aerobic mineralization of these compounds can yield sufficient energy to sustain microbial growth.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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