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  • 1
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: BrdU incorporation ; Cultured cells DNA replication ; Electron microscopy ; EM immunocytochemistry ; Immunocytochemistry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: In the present study, we have optimized an immunocytochemical ultrastructural approach for in situ localization of newly synthesized DNA in unsynchronized as well as in synchronized human HeLa cells and in exponentially growing mouse P815 cells, which had incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) during short pulses varying from 1 to 20 minues. The incorporated BrdU was detected in hydrolyzed ultrathin cryosections or Lowicryl sections by means of a monoclonal antibody, revealed by secondary colloidal gold-labeled probes. The results demonstrate our ability to study, with high resolution and reproducibility, DNA replication during consecutive periods of the S-phase, which is monitored by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine. In addition, this approach allows one to perform a concomitant mapping of replicated DNA and various enzymes of the replisome.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Key words: Human evolution — DNA polymorphisms — Dystrophin locus — Population size — Neutral evolution — Mutation rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. Neutral DNA polymorphisms from an 8-kb segment of the dystrophin gene, previously ascertained in a worldwide sample (n= 250 chromosomes), were used to characterize the population ancestral to the present-day human groups. The ancestral state of each polymorphic site was determined by comparing human variants with their orthologous sites in the great apes. The ``age before fixation'' of the underlying mutations was estimated from the frequencies of the new alleles and analyzed in the context of these polymorphisms' distribution among 13 populations from Africa, Europe, Asia, New Guinea, and the Americas (n= 860 chromosomes in total). Seventeen polymorphisms older tan 100,000–200,000 years, which contributed ∼90% to the overall nucleotide diversity, were common to all human groups. Polymorphisms endemic to human groups or continentally restricted were younger than 100,000–200,000 years. Africans (six populations) with 13 such sites stood out from the rest of the world (seven populations), where only 2 population-specific variants were observed. The similarity of the frequencies of the old polymorphisms in Africans and non-Africans suggested a similar profile of genetic variability in the population before the modern human's divergence. This ancestral population was characterized by an effective size of about 10,000 as estimated from the nucleotide diversity; this size may describe the number of breeding individuals over a long time during the Middle Pleistocene or reflect a speciation bottleneck from an initially larger population at the end of this period.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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