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  • 1
    Abstract: Activating mutations of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), notably internal tandem duplications (ITDs), are associated with a grave prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transforming FLT3ITD signal transduction causes formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inactivation of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) DEP-1/PTPRJ, a negative regulator of FLT3 signaling. Here we addressed the underlying mechanisms and biological consequences. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) messenger RNA and protein expression was found to be elevated in FLT3ITD-positive cells and to depend on FLT3ITD signaling and STAT5-mediated activation of the NOX4 promoter. NOX4 knockdown reduced ROS levels, restored DEP-1 PTP activity and attenuated FLT3ITD-driven transformation. Moreover, Nox4 knockout (Nox4(-/-)) murine hematopoietic progenitor cells were refractory to FLT3ITD-mediated transformation in vitro. Development of a myeloproliferative-like disease (MPD) caused by FLT3ITD-transformed 32D cells in C3H/HeJ mice, and of a leukemia-like disease in mice transplanted with MLL-AF9/ FLT3ITD-transformed murine hematopoietic stem cells were strongly attenuated by NOX4 downregulation. NOX4-targeting compounds were found to counteract proliferation of FLT3ITD-positive AML blasts and MPD development in mice. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism of oncoprotein-driven PTP oxidation, and suggest that interference with FLT3ITD-STAT5-NOX4-mediated overproduction of ROS and PTP inactivation may have therapeutic potential in a subset of AML.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26308771
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  • 2
    Abstract: Differentially evolved responses to various stress conditions in plants are controlled by complex regulatory circuits of transcriptional activators, and repressors, such as transcription factors (TFs). To understand the general and condition-specific activities of the TFs and their regulatory relationships with the target genes (TGs), we have used a homogeneous stress gene expression dataset generated on ten natural ecotypes of the model plantArabidopsis thaliana, during five single and six combined stress conditions. Knowledge-based profiles of binding sites for 25 stress-responsive TF families (187 TFs) were generated and tested for their enrichment in the regulatory regions of the associated TGs. Condition-dependent regulatory sub-networks have shed light on the differential utilization of the underlying network topology, by stress-specific regulators and multifunctional regulators. The multifunctional regulators maintain the core stress response processes while the transient regulators confer the specificity to certain conditions. Clustering patterns of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) have reflected the combinatorial nature of transcriptional regulation, and suggested the putative role of the homotypic clusters of TFBS towards maintaining transcriptional robustness againstcis-regulatory mutations to facilitate the preservation of stress response processes. The Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the TGs reflected sequential regulation of stress response mechanisms in plants.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26681689
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