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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Muscles paravertébraux ; Muscle multifide ; Anthropométrie ; Lombalgie ; Paraspinal muscles ; Multifidus ; Anthropometry ; Low back pain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary This study of 52 patients (27 men) with recent (18 months) or chronic (〉18 months) low back and unilateral radicular pain symptoms was undertaken to investigate whether wasting of the paraspinal muscle components is generalised or selective. During the patients' routine computed tomographic lumbar spinal scans a standardised transaxial view was obtained along the upper end-plate of the L4 vertebra, and the cross-sectional areas of the paraspinal muscles and their components, multifidus and erector spinae, estimated. Irrespective of whether the symptoms were recent or chronic, multifidus dimensions were significantly greater on the side ipsilateral to the radicular pain symptoms. The results indicate selective changes of multifidus in these patients and possibly reflect an adaptive response by this muscle, such as to an increased role in stabilising the lumbar spine in the face of overall paraspinal muscle atrophy.
    Notes: Résumé Cette étude a été réalisée chez cinquante deux patients (27 hommes, 25 femmes), présentant une lombalgie soit récente (depuis moins de 18 mois), soit chronique (depuis plus de 18 mois) associée à une radiculalgie unilatérale. Le but de la recherche était de déterminer si l'atrophie des muscles paravertébraux était globale ou élective. Lors de l'examen scannographique de routine pratiqué chez ces patients, une coupe transversale a été pratiquée le long du plateau supérieur de la 4e vertèbre lombaire, permettant d'évaluer l'étendue de la surface occupée par ces muscles paravertébraux et leurs composants, plus particulièrement le muscle multifide et le muscle érecteur du rachis. Les résultats indiquent des modifications électives du muscle multifide chez les patients porteurs de lombalgies, et réflètent vraisemblablement une réponse adaptative de ce muscle qui semble jouer un rôle accru dans la stabilisation du rachis lombaire face à l'atrophie globale des muscles paravertébraux.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Flexion ; Kinematics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A simple, inexpensive method has been developed for measuring the position of the back, projected onto the sagittal plane, during flexion. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were attached to the skin overlying the T6, L1, L3 and L5 vertebrae. They started to flash, at a controlled frequency, at the beginning of movement from an upright to a flexed position. The positions of the markers together with the initial (upright) and final (flexed) positions of the back were recorded on a single photograph. A plumb line provided a vertical reference. Times were determinded from the flashing frequency. Vertical and horizontal components of the position were measured from the photograph; their resultant represented total displacement at a given instant in time. The results were scaled so that the displacements were expressed as a fraction of their maximum value, and time was expressed as a fraction of the total movement time. The reproducibility of the technique was tested by making repeated measurements from a single healthy volunteer. At any instant, the horizontal, vertical and resultant displacements of the T6 marker could be determined to within 7% of theirmaximum values; the resultant displacement of the L5 marker could be determined to within 10%. The results from the other markers were less reliable.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Various parameters for assessing endothelial cell (EC) metabolism, including immunohistochemistry and adenosine uptake, have been compared in the clinically uninvolved skin of patients with diffuse systemic sclerosis (DSS), CREST, incomplete CREST syndrome (ICREST), primary Raynaud's disease (1° RD) and normal controls. Evidence of platelet adhesion to EC, decreased EC storage of factor VIII-related antigen, changes in EC morphology and decreased adenosine uptake by EC, were found in the dermal microvasculature of normal skin of patients with DSS, CREST and ICREST, but not in 1° RD. These data indicate that a generalized microvascular endothelial dysfunction is present in the skin of patients with the systemic forms of scleroderma.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Low back pain ; von Willebrand factor antigen ; Vibration ; Vascular damage ; Endothelium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The von Willebrand factor (vWf) is a complex protein whose release is a marker for endothelial damage; serum levels of its antigen (vWFAg) can be used as a marker for such changes. We measured the levels of back discomfort and vWFAg in 11 subjects following 25-min periods of (1) lying down, (2) sitting upright, (3) vibrating whilst sitting and (4) sitting upright. Back discomfort appeared and vWf levels were significantly increased following sitting upright, compared with lying flat, and increased further following vibration. They fell thereafter with a period of sitting still upright. These results demonstrate that vibration has a significant effect in increasing back discomfort and the serum levels of vWFAg, and it is possible that vibration may induce vascular damage within the spine.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Synovial tissue cells from patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis bind dexamethasone in a similar fashion to the classical steroid receptors on other cells. In contrast, synovial fluid cells and blood PMNLs from these patients bind dexamethasone with much reduced affinity. Some component of plasma may interfere with the binding of dexamethasone to its receptor.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1437-160X
    Keywords: Scleroderma ; Endothelial cell ; Cytotoxic factor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Human umbilical vein endothelial cells grew equally well in sera from scleroderma patients and in sera from rheumatic controls. Using two independent methods of assessing cell growth, no evidence of a previously described endothelial cell cytotoxic factor could be found in heat inactivated sera from 23 scleroderma patients. The system used was sensitive in detecting growth inhibition due to five batches of foetal calf serum and low concentrations of homocysteine and 2-mercaptoethanol.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1437-160X
    Keywords: Experimental arthritis ; Mice ; Pristane-inflammation-osteoarthritis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Intraperitoneal injection of pristane induced a clinical peripheral arthritis and/or tenosynovitis in 40% of 40 Balb/cJ/Ola mice. Hind paws were always affected first and fore paws were frequently involved. Involvement of knee joints was only apparent histologically. Some clinically unaffected animals and apparently uninvolved joints from arthritic mice were also shown to have a synovitis histologically. The time of onset and pattern of arthritis was variable. The development of arthritis was not related to plasmacytoma or ascites induction, which occurred in a similar percentage of mice over a similar period. The earliest change was synoviocyte hyperplasia and polymorphonuclear infiltration in the subintima. There was no obvious mononuclear cell infiltration. In the later stages there was erosion of cartilage and sclerosis of underlying bone. These features resemble the joint changes seen in osteoarthritis.
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