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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Experiments were carried out to study changes in masticatory movements in the chewing sequence of young dentate persons and complete denture wearers rehabilitated with bridges on osseo-integrated implants (OIB) in the lower jaw. Two test foods were used in the dentate group (apple, bread) and bread in the OIB group. A computer-based opto-electronic system (Selspot) was employed to record and analyse all single chewing cycles, regarding parameters reflecting, chewing rhythm, mandibular velocity and displacement. The different parameters were tested both intra- and inter-individually versus the series of the single and overall chewing cycles in the masticatory sequences respectively. The results indicated that different subjects performed different patterns of mastication within the chewing period when chewing the same type of food. Different test foods (texture, size) also seemed to affect the chewing pattern in a different way, e.g. mandibular displacement showed an obvious reduction when chewing apple, probably due to the bigger size of the bolus. The inter- and intra-individual analysis showed in some parameters discrepancies implying problems in analysing the chewing pattern within the chewing sequence without using both methods.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary Thirty routine patients, provided with fixed prostheses supported by osseointegrated Brånemark implants in edentulous lower jaws, were arranged into three different groups with regard to design of the metal framework. Ten patients received cast gold alloy frames and the other two groups were provided with two different designs of welded titanium frames. The fit of the completed prostheses was measured in three dimensions (3-D) in relation to the master cast, by means of a photogrammetric technique, prior to insertion. Mean 3-D distortion of the centre point of the gold cylinder was 42 (s.d. 8) microns for the cast framework. The corresponding mean distortion for the two designs of titanium frameworks was 43 (s.d. 16) and 36 (s.d. 10) microns, respectively. Least distortion was observed in vertical direction for all three designs. None of the different designs of metal frames showed a significantly better fit (P 〉 0.05), but the cast and oldest titanium framework design presented a much wider range of distortion. This indicated a higher risk of sectioning and resoldering during the fabrication of the prostheses as compared to the more consistently fabricated prostheses, with a new titanium framework design.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In this prospective study 47 edentulous patients were treated with mandibular fixed prostheses supported by osseointegrated Brånemark implants and followed for 12 to 15 years. Three 1%) of the 273 inserted implants were lost, two before and one six years after placement of the fixed prosthesis. The cumulative success rate CSR) of the implants was 98.9% both after 10 and 15 years. None of the fixed prostheses was lost and at the last follow-up, all patients had stable fixed prostheses in function (CSR 100%). The marginal bone loss around the implants was small, on average 0.5mm during the first post surgical year and thereafter about 0.05mm annually. More bone was lost around the anterior implants than around the most posterior ones. Smoking and poor oral hygiene had significant influence on bone loss, while occlusal loading factors such as maximal bite force, tooth clenching and length of cantilevers were of minor importance. It is concluded that the long-term results of the mandibular implant treatment were extremely successful, regarding both the fixed prostheses and implant stability. Bone resorption around the implants, albeit limited, was influenced by several factors, smoking and oral hygiene appeared to be most important.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Distortions of 15 routine implant-supported prostheses were measured in relation to the master casts after completion by means of a 3-dimensional (3-D) photogrammetric technique. All prostheses were designed as one-piece gold-alloy castings with resin teeth. Five of the prostheses were placed in the edentulous maxilla, and the remaining were placed in the lower jaw. Distortion of the cylinders was mostly observed in the horizontal plane (x-and y-axis) while the vertical aspect seemed to be more stable. The mean 3-D center point distortion was 42 (SD 15) and 74 (SD 38)μm for the upper and lower jaws, respectively. The measurements revealed a range of3-D center point distortion from 16 to 80 and 15 to 165 μm for the different jaws, respectively. The corresponding 3-D mean angular distortion of the cylinders was 51 (SD 35)μm in lower and 70 (SD 75)μm in the upper jaws. A correlation was found between 3-D center point distortion and the width as well as the curvature of the implant arch, indicating more displacement the wider and the more curved the arch was. The 3-D center point distortion was also significantly higher in the upper jaws which could possibly be explained by the curvature of the implant arch and higher numbers of implants in the upper jaws. Further problems with the fit of upper jaw castings could be related to more alloy in the 1 castings and poor alignment of implants.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A photogrammetric technique was tested to measure the topography of the mucosa around implants, placed in edentulous upper jaws. Photographs were taken of casts from 6 patients, who all had used a removable overdenture for one year. Another series of photographs was taken on new casts after the use of a fixed prosthesis for a second year. The 6 pairs of photographs were measured and compared in an analytical stereo plotter for surface contour and implant positions. The results from the measurements indicated a trend of general recession of the mucosa after one year with fixed prosthesis. both on the buccal as well as on the palatal side. The mean volume of recession was 222.4 mm3, corresponding to an average of 0.4 mm3/mm2 of mucosa. More recession was generally observed on the palatal side, but obvious variations between the patients were present. In conclusion, the photogrammetric technique was considered to be well suited for analysing tissue contours in various dental situations.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Seventy-six patients were consecutively treated with fixed prostheses supported by osseointegrated implants in the edentulous maxilla and followed up for 5 years. The mean bone quality and resorption indices were 3.1 and 2.7 at the time of implant placement, respectively. Altogether, 449 standard Brånemark implants were placed. Two patients resumed to complete dentures, and the cumulative implant and prosthesis survival rates were 92.1% and 95.9% for 5 years, respectively. The mean marginal bone level was 0.6 mm below the reference point at the time of placement and 1.2 mm below the same point 5 years later. Speech problems was the most frequent complaint during the first year of function, while resin fractures caused most adjustments during the follow-up period. No implant, abutment or gold alloy screws were found to be fractured, and only 4 patients had their prostheses re-tightened due to loose gold alloy screws.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A photogrammetric technique was designed to measure the position of dental implants in 3 dimensions to enable assessment of the tit of superstructures placed on the implants. A relatively simple camera setup was developed and tested. Calibration of the camera was performed in a high-precision analytical plotter and revealed a film measurement accuracy of 0.005 mm. The achieved measuring accuracy for clear and well defined points on clinical components was found to be around 0.02 mm. To find the center points of the implants, points on the circumference were measured. These points are not well defined, which resulted in an estimation of the center point of the implant with a precision of 0.05 mm. Independent measurements of a prosthesis with 5 implants were also within the precision of 0.05 mm. The angular orientation of the top surface of the implant cylinder (abutment, brass replica of gold alloy cylinder of the framework) was measured with a precision of 0.01 radians, which corresponded to an error with a peripheral gap of about 0.03 mm. This value was about 5-10 times lower than the clinical fit between frameworks and abutments, measured in 3 randomly selected clinical cases.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the use of resonance frequency measurements in the clinical measurement of implant stability. Resonance frequency measurements are undertaken by measuring the response of a small transducer attached to an implant fixture or abutment. Two groups of patients were selected for study. Group A comprised 9 patients who had a total of 56 implants placed. Resonance frequency measurements were made at fixture installation and repeated 8 months later at abutment connection. The resonance frequency of the implant/transducer system increased for 50 out of the 56 implants from a mean value of 7473 Hz ± 127 Hz (P〈0.05) to a mean of 7915 Hz ± 112 Hz (P〈0.05). Two implants had failed to integrate and the resonance frequency of these had fallen. Group B comprised 9 patients who had been provided with fixed prostheses and had a total of 52 implants placed. They were examined 5 years after fixture placement and the prostheses removed. All implants were judged clinically to be osseointegrated. The level of the marginal bone around each implant was calculated by measuring the number of exposed threads on intraoral periapical radiographs and added to the length of each abutment to give a value termed the effective implant length (EIL). Measurements indicated a correlation (R=0.78, P〈0.01) between EIL and resonance frequency. The results support the hypothesis that the resonance frequency of an implant/transducer system is related to the height of the implant not surrounded by bone and the stability of the implant/tissue interface as determined by the absence of clinical mobility.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Patients with resorbed edentulous upper jaws were arranged into 2 different groups, based on an overall assessment of bone resorption prior to implant surgery. Each group comprised 3.5 patients, all of whom received an overdenture after abutment connection. The patients in the group with the best bone situation were scheduled to receive a fixed prosthesis after 1 year provided that the clinical situation was stable. The overall cumulative implant and prosthesis treatment success rates were 77% and 85%, respectively, for a 3-year follow-up period. Nineteen of the patients in the best bone group received a fixed prosthesis after they had used the overdenture for 1 year. These patients exhibited a cumulative implant success rate of 97%. None of the fixed prostheses was lost. Implant failures and other clinical adjustments were frequent for the first year of follow-up, but the number of problems diminished in the subsequent years.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The objective of the present study was to assess possible adaptive functional changes in the masticatory system after insertion of fixed prostheses supported by osseointegrated implants in the edentulous mandible. Registrations of mandibular movement characteristics and maximal biteforce were performed at insertion and after 1 week, 3 months and 1 year after connection. The duration of the opening and closing phase decreased and maximal biteforce increased significantly (p≤0.05–0.001) from connection of the prostheses to the annual check-up. However, the process of functional adaptation implied2 identified stages. An immediate phase that occurred within the 1st week, probably due to altered impact from mechano-sensitive receptors and a later more time-dependent phase, based on learning and new cortical engrams. Accordingly, the process of adaptation will continue over a long period of time.
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