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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The human oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii expresses, on the cell surface, two antigenically related high-molecular-mass polypeptides denoted CshA and CshB, encoded by genes at separate chromosomal loci. The precursor form of CshA is composed of four distinct segments: (i) a 41-amino-acid residue leader peptide, (ii) W-terminal 42–878 residues, (iii) residues 879–2417 comprising 13 repeat blocks of 101 amino acid residues and three shorter blocks, and (iv) a C-terminal anchor domain similar to those present in some other Gram-positive bacterial cell-wall polypeptides. Insertional mutations within cshA reduced both cell-surface hydrophobicity and ability to adhere to oral Actinomyces naeslundii. Insertional mutations in cshB had less effect on hydrophobicity and coadherence. However, expression of both polypeptides was found to be necessary for streptococci to colonize the murine oral cavity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The effects of four different hyperplastic agents and of the carcinogen DMBA on cytokeratin expression in hamster cheek pouch epithelia were compared. Reversible hyperplasia was produced by the application of either oil of turpentine, vitamin A or TPA. No hyperplastic changes were produced by application of EPP. Apart from the transient appearance of a 45 kDa cytokeratin in one group treated with vitamin A. the immunohistochemical staining patterns and immunoblot profiles of cytokeratins from cheek pouches treated with each of the hyperplastic agents were identical to controls. Following application of OMBA, the cytokeralins stained with increased intensity in the spinous and granular cell layers. This was associated with increased amounts of 42 56 kDa cytokeratins and decreased production of 62 75 kDa cytokeratins. Monoclonal antibody AE1 detected a 45 kDa cytokeratin in extracts of DMBA-treated epithelia that was not detected in untreated epithelial extracts. Monoclonal antibody AE3 detected an additional 54 kDa cytokeratin hand in extracts of DMBA-treated epithelia. These cytokeratin changes were present in preneoplastic epithelia and maintained in neoplastic epithelia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Cytokeratin (CK) expression in untreated, paraffin-treated or dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-treated hamster cheek pouch epithelium was investigated utilizing monoclonal antibodies AE1 or AE3, which react with type I or type II CKs, respectively, and by in situ hybridization utilizing type I CK-specific probes. The latter were isolated from a cDNA library of hamster cheek pouch mRNA and designated CK 13 and CK 10 based on their respective homologies (〉95% amino acids) with murine CK 13 and human CK 10. Treatment of hamster cheek pouch epithelium with DMBA resulted in increased expression of type I CK, detected immunohistochemically with monoclonal AE1, but decreased expression of type II CKs detected with AE3. Despite an overall increase in type I CKs, in situ hybridization demonstrated differential expression of type I CKs with altered distribution of CK 13 mRNA and reduced expression of CK 10 mRNA, providing additional sensitive markers for DMBA-associated changes in CKs. These changes were constant at 2 to 22 weeks in the pre-neoplastic and neoplastic epithelium following the initial application of DMBA.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The C-terminal coding region of the gene (denoted csh A) encoding a high-molecular-mass (290 kDa) cell-surface polypeptide in the oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii was cloned and sequenced. Insertion of ermAM into the S. gordonii chromosome at the 3′ end of the coding region of cshA led to the production of isogenic mutants that secreted a truncated form (260 kDa) of the CshA polypeptide into the growth medium. Mutants had reduced cell-surface hydrophobicity and were impaired in their ability to coaggregate with oral actinomyces. The results identify a carboxyl terminus-anchored cell-surface protein determinant of hydrophobicity and coaggregation in S. gordonii
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: oral streptococci ; adherence ; Streptococcus adherence ; genetics of adherence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Streptococci are one of the most successful bacterial colonizers of the human body and are major components of oral biofilms. The bacterial cells express multiple cell-surface adhesins that are responsible for the ability of streptococci to adhere to a wide range of substrates which include salivary and serous proteins, epithelial cells and other bacterial cells. Analysis of adherence-defective mutants has indicated the importance of high molecular mass wall-associated polypeptides and of enzymes catalyzing extracellular glucan polysaccharide synthesis to the adherence and accumulation of oral streptococci. The analysis of isogenic mutants of streptococci, generated through insertional inactivation (or allelic exchange), has confirmed the essential roles of specific surface polypeptides both to adhesive processes and to correct assembly of the cell wall layers.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis worldwide. In the majority of cases, GBS is transmitted vertically from mother to neonate, making maternal vaginal colonization a key risk factor for neonatal disease. The fungus Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen of the female genitourinary tract and the causative agent of vaginal thrush. Carriage of C. albicans has been shown to be an independent risk factor for vaginal colonization by GBS. However, the nature of interactions between these two microbes is poorly understood. This study provides evidence of a reciprocal, synergistic interplay between GBS and C. albicans that may serve to promote their cocolonization of the vaginal mucosa. GBS strains NEM316 (serotype III) and 515 (serotype Ia) are shown to physically interact with C. albicans , with the bacteria exhibiting tropism for candidal hyphal filaments. This interaction enhances association levels of both microbes with the vaginal epithelial cell line VK2/E6E7. The ability of GBS to coassociate with C. albicans is dependent upon expression of the hypha-specific adhesin Als3. In turn, expression of GBS antigen I/II family adhesins (Bsp polypeptides) facilitates this coassociation and confers upon surrogate Lactococcus lactis the capacity to exhibit enhanced interactions with C. albicans on vaginal epithelium. As genitourinary tract colonization is an essential first step in the pathogenesis of GBS and C. albicans , the coassociation mechanism reported here may have important implications for the risk of disease involving both of these pathogens.
    Print ISSN: 0019-9567
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5522
    Topics: Medicine
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