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  • 1
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Experimental findings have suggested that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of tumor cells may exert oncomodulatory effects that enhance tumor malignancy. However, controversial findings have been published on the presence of HCMV in malignant tumors. Here, we present the first study that systematically investigates HCMV infection in human nervous system tumors by highly sensitive immunohistochemistry in correlation with the HCMV serostatus of the patients. METHODS: Immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR-based methods to detect different HCMV antigens and genomic HCMV DNA were optimized prior to the investigation of pathological samples. Moreover, the pathological results were matched with the HCMV serostatus of the patients. RESULTS: HCMV immediate-early, late, and pp65 antigens could be detected in single cells from HCMV strain Hi91-infected UKF-NB-4 neuroblastoma cells after 1:1024 dilution with noninfected UKF-NB-4 cells. Genomic HCMV DNA could be detected in copy numbers as low as 430 copies/mL. However, we did not detect HCMV in tumors from a cohort of 123 glioblastoma, medulloblastoma, or neuroblastoma patients. Notably, we detected nonspecifically positive staining in tumor tissues of HCMV seropositive and seronegative glioblastoma patients. The HCMV serostatus of 67 glioblastoma patients matched the general epidemiological prevalence data for Western countries (72% of female and 57% of male glioblastoma patients were HCMV seropositive). Median survival was not significantly different in HCMV seropositive versus seronegative glioblastoma patients. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCMV-infected tumor cells may be much lower than previously reported based on highly sensitive detection methods.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25155358
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant intracranial tumor in adults and currently incurable. To specifically target natural killer (NK) cell activity to GBM, we employed NK-92/5.28.z cells that are continuously expanding human NK cells expressing an ErbB2-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). METHODS: ErbB2 expression in 56 primary tumors, four primary cell cultures, and seven established cell lines was assessed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Cell killing activity of NK-92/5.28.z cells was analyzed in in vitro cytotoxicity assays. In vivo antitumor activity was evaluated in NOD-SCID IL2Rgamma(null) (NSG) mice carrying orthotopic human GBM xenografts (6 to 11 mice per group) and C57BL/6 mice carrying subcutaneous and orthotopic ErbB2-expressing murine GBM tumors (5 to 8 mice per group). Statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We found elevated ErbB2 protein expression in 41% of primary GBM samples and in the majority of GBM cell lines investigated. In in vitro assays, NK-92/5.28.z in contrast to untargeted NK-92 cells lysed all ErbB2-positive established and primary GBM cells analyzed. Potent in vivo antitumor activity of NK-92/5.28.z was observed in orthotopic GBM xenograft models in NSG mice, leading to a marked extension of symptom-free survival upon repeated stereotactic injection of CAR NK cells into the tumor area (median survival of 200.5 days upon treatment with NK-92/5.28.z vs 73 days upon treatment with parental NK-92 cells, P 〈 .001). In immunocompetent mice, local therapy with NK-92/5.28.z cells resulted in cures of transplanted syngeneic GBM in four of five mice carrying subcutaneous tumors and five of eight mice carrying intracranial tumors, induction of endogenous antitumor immunity, and long-term protection against tumor rechallenge at distant sites. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the potential of ErbB2-specific NK-92/5.28.z cells for adoptive immunotherapy of glioblastoma, justifying evaluation of this approach for the treatment of ErbB2-positive GBM in clinical studies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26640245
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  • 3
    Abstract: Recently, the conserved intracellular digestion mechanism 'autophagy' has been considered to be involved in early tumorigenesis and its blockade proposed as an alternative treatment approach. However, there is an ongoing debate about whether blocking autophagy has positive or negative effects in tumor cells. Since there is only poor data about the clinico-pathological relevance of autophagy in gliomas in vivo, we first established a cell culture based platform for the in vivo detection of the autophago-lysosomal components. We then investigated key autophagosomal (LC3B, p62, BAG3, Beclin1) and lysosomal (CTSB, LAMP2) molecules in 350 gliomas using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and qPCR. Autophagy was induced pharmacologically or by altering oxygen and nutrient levels. Our results show that autophagy is enhanced in astrocytomas as compared to normal CNS tissue, but largely independent from the WHO grade and patient survival. A strong upregulation of LC3B, p62, LAMP2 and CTSB was detected in perinecrotic areas in glioblastomas suggesting micro-environmental changes as a driver of autophagy induction in gliomas. Furthermore, glucose restriction induced autophagy in a concentration-dependent manner while hypoxia or amino acid starvation had considerably lesser effects. Apoptosis and autophagy were separately induced in glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our findings indicate that autophagy in gliomas is rather driven by micro-environmental changes than by primary glioma-intrinsic features thus challenging the concept of exploitation of the autophago-lysosomal network (ALN) as a treatment approach in gliomas.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26956048
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  • 4
    Keywords: PATHWAY ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; MAMMALIAN TARGET ; PHASE-II TRIAL ; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS COMPLEX ; mTOR ; RECURRENT GLIOBLASTOMA-MULTIFORME ; GIANT-CELL ASTROCYTOMAS ; MESSENGER-RNA TRANSLATION ; RAPAMYCIN AY-22,989
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Current pathological diagnostics include the analysis of (epi-)genetic alterations as well as oncogenic pathways. Deregulated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling has been implicated in a variety of cancers including malignant gliomas and is considered a promising target in cancer treatment. Monitoring of mTORC1 activity before and during inhibitor therapy is essential. The aim of our study is to provide a recommendation and report on pitfalls in the use of phospho-specific antibodies against mTORC1-targets phospho-RPS6 (Ser235/236; Ser240/244) and phospho-4EBP1 (Thr37/46) in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded material. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Primary, established cell lines and brain tumor tissue from routine diagnostics were assessed by immunocyto-, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescent stainings and immunoblotting. For validation of results, immunoblotting experiments were performed. mTORC-pathway activation was pharmacologically inhibited by torin2 and rapamycin. Torin2 treatment led to a strong reduction of signal intensity and frequency of all tested antibodies. In contrast phospho-4EBP1 did not show considerable reduction in staining intensity after rapamycin treatment, while immunocytochemistry with both phospho-RPS6-specific antibodies showed a reduced signal compared to controls. Staining intensity of both phospho-RPS6-specific antibodies did not show considerable decrease in stability in a timeline from 0-230 minutes without tissue fixation, however we observed a strong decrease of staining intensity in phospho-4EBP1 after 30 minutes. Detection of phospho-signals was strongly dependent on tissue size and fixation gradient. mTORC1-signaling was significantly induced in glioblastomas although not restricted to cancer cells but also detectable in non-neoplastic cells. CONCLUSION: Here we provide a recommendation for phospho-specific immunohistochemistry for patient-orientated therapy decisions and monitoring treatment response.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25993328
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  • 5
    Abstract: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) represent the most common malignant tumor group in the age group of 20 to 40-years old men. The potentially curable effect of cytotoxic therapy in TGCT is mediated mainly by the induction of apoptosis. Autophagy has been discussed as an alternative mechanism of cell death but also of treatment resistance in various types of tumors. However, in TGCT the expression and role of core autophagy-associated factors is hitherto unknown. We designed the study in order to evaluate the potential role of autophagy-associated factors in the development and progression of testicular cancers. Eighty-four patients were assessed for autophagy (BAG3, p62) and apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3) markers using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue micro- arrays. In addition, western blot analyses of frozen tissue of seminoma and non-seminoma were performed. Our findings show that BAG3 was significantly upregulated in seminoma as compared to non-seminoma but not to normal testicular tissue. No significant difference of p62 expression was detected between neoplastic and normal tissue or between seminoma and non-seminoma. BAG3 and p62 showed distinct locoregional expression patterns in normal and neoplastic human testicular tissues. In contrast to the autophagic markers, apoptosis rate was significantly higher in testicular tumors as compared to normal testicular tissue, but not between different TGCT subtypes. The present study, for the first time, examined the expression of central autophagy proteins BAG3 and p62 in testicular cancer. Our findings imply that in general apoptosis but not autophagy induction differs between normal and neoplastic testis tissue.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26707573
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  • 6
    Abstract: Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) has recently been described as a multifunctional protein that regulates proliferation, migration and survival in several tumor entities. In glioblastoma (GBM), the most malignant primary brain tumor, secreted CPE (sCPE) was shown to modulate tumor cell migration. In our current study, we aimed at clarifying the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating anti-migratory as well as novel metabolic effects of sCPE in GBM. Here we show that sCPE activates mTORC1 signaling in glioma cells detectable by phosphorylation of its downstream target RPS6. Additionally, sCPE diminishes glioma cell migration associated with a negative regulation of Rac1 signaling via RPS6, since both inhibition of mTOR and stimulation of Rac1 results in a reversed effect of sCPE on migration. Knockdown of CPE leads to a decrease of active RPS6 associated with increased GBM cell motility. Apart from this, we show that sCPE enhances glucose flux into the tricarboxylic acid cycle at the expense of lactate production, thereby decreasing aerobic glycolysis, which might as well contribute to a less invasive behavior of tumor cells. Our data contributes to a better understanding of the complexity of GBM cell migration and sheds new light on how tumor cell invasion and metabolic plasticity are interconnected.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28674211
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  • 7
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  60th Annual Meeting of the German Society for Neuropathology and Neuroanatomy (DGNN); 20150826-20150828; Berlin; DOC15dgnnP58 /20150825/
    Publication Date: 2015-08-26
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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