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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the present study was to compare the anchorage of TiO2-blasted screw and cylindrical implants with conventionally used machine-produced screw and cylindrical implants inserted immediately in extraction sockets on dogs. 6 adult mongrel dogs had 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars extracted bilaterally and 24 commercial pure titanium implants were placed immediately in extraction sockets and covered with mucoperiosteum. Each dog had inserted 4 implants: 1 screw implant and 1 cylindrical implant blasted with titanium-dioxide-particles; 1 screw implant and 1 cylindrical implant with machine-produced (m.p.) surface (controls). After a healing period of 12 weeks, 16 implants from 4 animals were used for removal torque test, which demonstrated that significantly higher removal torque force was needed to unscrew the implants blasted with titanium-dioxide-particles, than the normal m.p. implants. The medians for the TiO2-blasted screw and cylindrical implants were 〉 150 Ncm and 10.5 Ncm, respectively, while the values for the m.p. implants were 60 Ncm and 35 Ncm, respectively. The SEM investigation demonstrated a high irregularity of the TiO2-blasted surface compared to the machined surface. The R, and R, values for surface roughness were higher for the TiO2-blasted implants than for the normal m.p. implants. Histomorphometrically, the arithmetic mean of the direct bone-implant contact fraction was 69%. There was no significant difference in direct bone-implant contact length fraction between TiO2-blasted implants and the control implants. The implants blasted with titanium-dioxide-particles in this study showed a better anchorage than implants with a machine-produced surface. The screw implants showed a better anchorage than the cylindrical implants.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Biomaterials 6 (1995), S. 75-83 
    ISSN: 1045-4861
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: A new bone cement was developed with the purpose of reducing the adverse biological effects during cementation of implants. This bone cement is characterized by lower exotherm, low release of monomer, low residual content of monomer, and retained physical properties. The essential innovation was substitution of half of the methylmethacrylate (MMA) in the monomer with long chain, high molecular weight, less volatile, and less soluble methacrylates (n-decylmethacrylate, isobornyl-methacrylate), as well as alteration of the accelerator system to a mix of dihydroxypropyl-p-toluidine and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine. The powder contains butyl-methacrylate-MMA copolymers. These measures lower the glass-transition temperature, and permit more complete mixing in an integrated package, mixing, and delivery system consisting of a vacuum packed, double chamber pouch. The porosity was reduced to about 2% and the largest voids measured 0.1 mm. The polymerization exotherm was reduced to 58 °C. The compressive strength was 82 MPa, the four-point bending strength 55 MPa, the flexural modulus 2.24 GPa, the tensile strength 32 MPa, and the shear strength 36 MPa. The fracture toughness was 0.89 MPa √cm. These mechanical properties together with the fatigue life were on level with manually mixed, conventional PMMA bone cements. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1045-4861
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: A new formulation of acrylic bone cement [methylmethacrylate/n-decylmethacrylate/isobornylmethacrylate (MMA/DMA/IBMA)] developed with the purpose of reducing the biologic adverse effects of bone cements was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography for residual content of monomers and aromatic amines from the accelerator system [dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT), dihydroxypropyl-p-toluidine (DHPPT)] in the cured cement and for concentrations of these constituents in hydrophilic and lipophilic eluates. In comparison with conventional polymethyl-methacrylate acrylics a considerable reduction of both released and residual MMA was experienced, being about 10- to 15-fold. The residual content of the new DMA and IBMA monomers were 0.35% and 0.66%, respectively, in cured cement after 72 h and these could only be detected in the paraffin eluates. The residual content of aromatic amines was considerably reduced with the new cement formulation. No DMPT could be detected and the DHPPT represented a 3- to 4-fold reduction in cured cement and a 8- to 10-fold reduction in eluates. The residual DHPPT content of about 0.07% was found to be practically constant with time. It is concluded that MMA/DMA/IBMA cement cures faster and more completely.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: A canine study was performed to make a histological and biomechanical evaluation of the interface between bone and two different bioceramic implants. A newly developed glass-ceramic formed by P2O5, CaO, SiO2, and Al2O3, giving a crystal phase composed of CaP2O6—AlPO4—SiP2O7, was compared to hydroxyapatite (HA) coated Ti—6Al—4V implants. A total of 24 implants were inserted into the femoral condyle of 15 adult female golden retriever dogs weighing 20-25 kg. There was a 12 week follow-up. Implants were examined by mechanical testing, histology, histomorphometry, microradiograpic methods, and EDAX analysis. The ultimate shear strength for the HA-coated implants was significantly higher than in the glass-ceramic group. When these values were related to the histomorphometric measurements, the difference could be explained by the tissue-to-implant contact. The glass-ceramic showed direct contact only with nonmineralized, osteoid bone. The HA-coated implants, however, were integrated into the bone. The study indicated that porous glass-ceramic containing AlPO4 causes local osteomalacia and might not be suitable for clinical purposes. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: The histological response of bone to inert bone wax, conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and a new formulation of bone cement, methylmethacrylate/n-decylmethacrylate/isobornylmethacrylate (MMA/DMA/IBMA) was investigated in canine tibial diaphysis. The new formulation of cement is characterized by a reduced exothermic temperature at curing and reduced leakage of chemicals to the adjacent bone. In comparison with bone wax, the MMA/DMA/IBMA bone cement did not differ significantly with respect to periosteal apposition and bone remodeling, although a tendency to inhibit the biological response was encountered. The MMA/DMA/IBMA was clearly superior to PMMA bone cement in respect to both bone necrosis and repair, as well as bone remodeling. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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