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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Key words Anterior cruciate ; ligament ; Isolated partial rupture ; Knee laxity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract The majority of previous studies on partial ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) include a relatively large proportion of knees with associated intra-articular injury or collateral ligament tear that contributes to an increase in the symptoms of instability and further deterioration of knee function. In the present study only patients with isolated, partial ruptures of the ACL were evaluated. Fifty-six patients with one injured knee were examined after a median of 5.3 (range 2.0–12.7) years using the IKDC evaluation form, Lysholm knee function score and Tegner activity score. Of the 56 knees, 6 underwent autologous reconstruction due to early progression to complete rupture. Of 34 knees evaluated for laxity, 25 had a negative Lachman test and 7 a positive (+) Lachman. In 2 knees a Lachman ++ result and a positive pivot shift were found. With instrumented laxity testing 24 knees had 2 mm or less difference in laxity compared with the contralateral uninjured knee. The largest side-to-side difference in knee laxity was 4.5 mm. Lysholm score was median 86 (range 52–100) points, and 62% had good or excellent knee function. A significant decline in activity was seen. Only 10 patients (30%) resumed their preinjury activities. We find that the majority of patients with an isolated, partial rupture of the ACL have an acceptable knee function and a stable knee after a median 5 years follow-up. There is, however, a marked reduction in activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Seventy patients met our inclusion criteria in this retrospective study, all with an arthroscopic/arthrotomic-verified isolated total anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-rupture and a minimum follow-up period of 3 years and no associated lesions. Due to emigration/death, 3 patients were not available for follow-up. Of the remaining 67, 25 patients underwent secondary ACL-reconstruction, equivalent to a failure rate of the initial non-operative treatment of 37%. All patients were initially treated conservatively. This left 42 patients for follow-up – 9 answered a questionnare and 33 went through follow-up examination after a median of 7.1 years (range 3.3–14.6) including IKDC-evaluation form. Lysholm & Tegner score, ES-SKA-score, clinical examination and Stryker Laxity test. In the present study all values represent the 33 patients available for follow-up. Soccer, handball and alpine skiing were most frequently responsible for the injury. We observed in the 33 patients a decline in median Lysholm score from 100 (90–100) pretraumatic to 86 (42–100) at follow-up, and a decrease in median Tegner values from 7 (3–9) pretraumatic to 5 (2–7) at follow-up. All but 2 patients demonstrated a decline in Lysholm score, and only 3 patients returned to their preinjury level. According to the ESSKA-classification, the number of “cutting-sports performers” declined dramatically from 24 to 2. All but one patient ascribed their decline in activity to their knee status. The Stryker-measured AP-translocations were significantly higher on the injured knee (7.27) compared to the healthy knee (4.80) (P〈0.05). Intermittant rest pain was suffered by 63% of the patients. During the time from inclusion until follow-up, 13 (39%) patients sustained an additional ipsilateral knee lesion, most commonly a tear of the medial meniscus. The overall outcome was expressed in a low frequency of return to unrestricted preinjury level of function, and a high level of instability complaints resulting in many secondary ACL-reconstructions. Naturally some have adapted to their ultimate functional disability, but only through modification of activities, and the overall outcome after conservative therapy of these ACL-ruptures was not satisfactory.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In this study, the relative distributions of two alternatively polyadenylated chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC) mRNA isoforms of approximately 1.5 and 1.9 kb were analysed in spleen cells from chickens homozygous for the MHC haplotypes B21 and B19v1 as well as in heterozygous B19v1/B21 birds. Both isoforms are likely to encode classical MHC class I (B-F) alpha chains. The B19v1 and B21 MHC haplotypes confer different levels of protection against Marek's disease (MD), which is caused by infection with MD virus (MDV). In spleen cells, MD-resistant B21 birds were shown to have the highest percentage of the 1.5 kb variant relative to the total MHC class I expression, MD-susceptible B19v1 birds the lowest and B19v1/B21 birds an intermediate percentage. Infection of 4-week-old chickens with the GA strain of MDV was shown to cause a significant increase in the relative amount of 1.5 kb transcripts in B21 birds 32 days postinfection (dpi). Alternatively polyadenylated mRNA isoforms may encode identical proteins, but differences in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) can influence polyadenylation, mRNA stability, intracellular localization and translation efficiency. It was shown that the increased 1.5 kb percentage in B21 birds 32 days postinfection may be a result of a change in the choice of poly(A) site rather than a locus-specific upregulated transcription of the BF1 gene that preferentially expresses the 1.5 kb variant. Furthermore, the 3′ end of the 1.5 kb mRNA variants deriving from B19v1 and B21 chickens was characterized by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) and sequencing. No potentially functional elements were identified in the 3′ UTR of the RACE products corresponding to this short isoform. However, variation in polyadenylation site was observed between the BF1 and BF2 mRNA transcripts and alternative splicing-out of the sequence (exon 7) encoding the second segment of the cytoplasmic part of the mature BF2*19 molecules. This alternative exon 7 splice variant was also detected in other MD-susceptible haplotypes, but not in the MD-resistant B21 and B21-like haplotypes, suggesting a potential role of exon 7 in MHC-related MD resistance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Cellular changes in thin cell layer (TCL) explants of stem origin of Brassica napus L. cv. Vega were studied from 0 to 15 day by light and transmission electron microscopy. Apical and basal ends of the old explants were analysed separately. Quantitative and qualitative analyses showed that during the first culture day the parenchyma cells enlarged significantly as did the cytoplasm/vacuole ratio. The cytoplasm contained increased rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), polysomes and dictyosomes associated with both coated and uncoated vesicles. The cell enlargement continued during the first 5 days of culture. The structural organization of the cell wall became somewhat loose and inhomogeneous. Parenchyma in the basal end divided frequently, resulting in several centres of division, while cell division in apical cells was less frequent and cells there remained enlarged. Starch accumulation started on the first day and increased until the third day. i. e. until cell divisions became more frequent. The starch content of dividing cells gradually decreased and starch was almost totally lacking in 15-day-old explants. Starch grains remained numerous, however, in the large non-dividing apical cells, except in those cells adjacent to the medium. Cell divisions started close to medium in explants containing vascular tissue, but closer to the epidermis in the explants without vascular tissue.The results show how rapid (one day) striking changes in the cells take place and suggest that optimal hormone concentration and intertissue relations between epidermis and parenchyma and between parenchyma and vascular tissues as well as intercellular relations among parenchyma cells determine the first cell division sites and planes in the explants. Although the cells change from elongated to spheroid, their original polarity remains as evidenced by the formation of more numerous basal shoot primordia than in apical shoot primordia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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