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  • 1
    Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggest that soya consumption as a source of phyto-oestrogens and isoflavones may be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. However, findings have not yet been synthesised for all groups of phyto-oestrogens. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the association between phyto-oestrogens and colorectal cancer risk. Relevant observational studies published up to June 2016 were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases. Study-specific relative risks (RR) were pooled in both categorical and dose-response meta-analyses. Out of seventeen identified studies, sixteen were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest with the lowest intake category, inverse associations for phyto-oestrogens overall and by subgroup were observed but were statistically significant in case-controls studies and not in cohort studies. The pooled RR in case-control studies were 0.76 (95 % CI 0.69, 0.84), 0.77 (95 % CI 0.69, 0.85) and 0.70 (95 % CI 0.56, 0.89) for phyto-oestrogens, isoflavones and lignans, respectively, whereas the corresponding pooled RR were 0.95 (95 % CI 0.85, 1.06), 0.94 (95 % CI 0.84, 1.05) and 1.00 (95 % CI 0.64, 1.57) in cohort studies. Dose-response analysis yielded an 8 % reduced risk of colorectal neoplasms for every 20 mg/d increase in isoflavones intake in Asians (pooled RR 0.92; 95 % CI 0.86, 0.97). A non-linear inverse association with colorectal cancer risk was found for lignans intake, but no association for circulating enterolactone concentrations was observed. Thus, study heterogeneity precludes a rigorous conclusion regarding an effect of high exposure to isoflavones on risk of colorectal cancer. Current evidence for an association with lignans exposure is limited. Further prospective studies, particularly evaluating lignans, are warranted to clarify the association between different phyto-oestrogens and colorectal cancer risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28091359
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  • 2
    Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggest that soya consumption as a source of phyto-oestrogens and isoflavones may be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. However, findings have not yet been synthesised for all groups of phyto-oestrogens. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the association between phyto-oestrogens and colorectal cancer risk. Relevant observational studies published up to June 2016 were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases. Study-specific relative risks (RR) were pooled in both categorical and dose-response meta-analyses. Out of seventeen identified studies, sixteen were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest with the lowest intake category, inverse associations for phyto-oestrogens overall and by subgroup were observed but were statistically significant in case-controls studies and not in cohort studies. The pooled RR in case-control studies were 0.76 (95 % CI 0.69, 0.84), 0.77 (95 % CI 0.69, 0.85) and 0.70 (95 % CI 0.56, 0.89) for phyto-oestrogens, isoflavones and lignans, respectively, whereas the corresponding pooled RR were 0.95 (95 % CI 0.85, 1.06), 0.94 (95 % CI 0.84, 1.05) and 1.00 (95 % CI 0.64, 1.57) in cohort studies. Dose-response analysis yielded an 8 % reduced risk of colorectal neoplasms for every 20 mg/d increase in isoflavones intake in Asians (pooled RR 0.92; 95 % CI 0.86, 0.97). A non-linear inverse association with colorectal cancer risk was found for lignans intake, but no association for circulating enterolactone concentrations was observed. Thus, study heterogeneity precludes a rigorous conclusion regarding an effect of high exposure to isoflavones on risk of colorectal cancer. Current evidence for an association with lignans exposure is limited. Further prospective studies, particularly evaluating lignans, are warranted to clarify the association between different phyto-oestrogens and colorectal cancer risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28091359
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  • 3
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified three chromosomal regions at 15q25, 5p15, and 6p21 as being associated with the risk of lung cancer. To confirm these associations in independent studies and investigate heterogeneity of these associations within specific subgroups, we conducted a coordinated genotyping study within the International Lung Cancer Consortium based on independent studies that were not included in previous genome-wide association studies. METHODS: Genotype data for single-nucleotide polymorphisms at chromosomes 15q25 (rs16969968, rs8034191), 5p15 (rs2736100, rs402710), and 6p21 (rs2256543, rs4324798) from 21 case-control studies for 11 645 lung cancer case patients and 14 954 control subjects, of whom 85% were white and 15% were Asian, were pooled. Associations between the variants and the risk of lung cancer were estimated by logistic regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Associations between 15q25 and the risk of lung cancer were replicated in white ever-smokers (rs16969968: odds ratio [OR] = 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21 to 1.32, P(trend) = 2 x 10(-26)), and this association was stronger for those diagnosed at younger ages. There was no association in never-smokers or in Asians between either of the 15q25 variants and the risk of lung cancer. For the chromosome 5p15 region, we confirmed statistically significant associations in whites for both rs2736100 (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.20, P(trend) = 1 x 10(-10)) and rs402710 (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.19, P(trend) = 5 x 10(-8)) and identified similar associations in Asians (rs2736100: OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.35, P(trend) = 2 x 10(-5); rs402710: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.27, P(trend) = .007). The associations between the 5p15 variants and lung cancer differed by histology; odds ratios for rs2736100 were highest in adenocarcinoma and for rs402710 were highest in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinomas. This pattern was observed in both ethnic groups. Neither of the two variants on chromosome 6p21 was associated with the risk of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In this international genetic association study of lung cancer, previous associations found in white populations were replicated and new associations were identified in Asian populations. Future genetic studies of lung cancer should include detailed stratification by histology.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20548021
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; COMBINATION ; LUNG ; MODEL ; MODELS ; TOXICITY ; CLASSIFICATION ; liver ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; microarray ; validation ; QUALITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; PERFORMANCE ; gene expression ; MICROARRAY DATA ; HUMANS ; microarrays ; PREDICTION ; PROJECT ; FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; rodent ; neuroblastoma ; development ; methods ; GENE-EXPRESSION DATA ; DNA MICROARRAYS ; rodents ; RECOMMENDATIONS ; EXPRESSION DATA ; CONTROL MAQC PROJECT ; PUBLISHED MICROARRAY ; RISK-STRATIFICATION
    Abstract: Gene expression data from microarrays are being applied to predict preclinical and clinical endpoints, but the reliability of these predictions has not been established. In the MAQC-II project, 36 independent teams analyzed six microarray data sets to generate predictive models for classifying a sample with respect to one of 13 endpoints indicative of lung or liver toxicity in rodents, or of breast cancer, multiple myeloma or neuroblastoma in humans. In total, 〉30,000 models were built using many combinations of analytical methods. The teams generated predictive models without knowing the biological meaning of some of the endpoints and, to mimic clinical reality, tested the models on data that had not been used for training. We found that model performance depended largely on the endpoint and team proficiency and that different approaches generated models of similar performance. The conclusions and recommendations from MAQC-II should be useful for regulatory agencies, study committees and independent investigators that evaluate methods for global gene expression analysis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A GaN-based metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) structure has been fabricated by using ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 instead of conventional oxides as insulator gate. Because of the polarization field provided by ferroelectric and the high dielectric constant of ferroelectric insulator, the capacitance–voltage characteristics of GaN-based metal–ferroelectric–semiconductor (MFS) structures are markedly improved compared to those of other previously studied GaN MIS structures. The GaN active layer in MFS structures can reach inversion just under the bias of smaller than 5 V, which is the generally applied voltage used in semiconductor-based integrated circuits. The surface carrier concentration of the GaN layer in the MFS structure is decreased by one order compared with the background carrier concentration. The GaN MFS structures look promising for the practical application of GaN-based field effect transistors. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Al and Ti/Al/Pt/Au ohmic contacts on GaN epitaxial layers were studied. The epilayers were grown on Si (111) substrates by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Al/GaN contacts achieved a minimum contact resistivity of 7.5×10−3 Ω cm2 after annealing in N2 ambient at 450 °C for 3 min. Further annealing degraded the contacts. Ti/Al/Pt/Au and GaN contacts achieved a minimum contact resistivity of 8.4×10−5 Ω cm2 after annealing in N2 at 650 °C for 20 s. The Ti/Al/Pt/Au contacts on GaN showed a better thermal stability than Al/GaN contacts. After annealing at 600 °C for 30 min. they were still ohmic contacts. The mechanisms for ohmic contact formation of Ti/Al/Pt/Au contacts were also analyzed. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: GaN metal–semiconductor–metal photoconductive detectors have been fabricated on Si(111) substrates. The GaN epitaxial layers were grown on Si substrates by means of metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition. These detectors exhibited a sharp cutoff at the wavelength of 363 nm and a high responsivity at a wavelength from 360 to 250 nm. A maximum responsivity of 6.9 A/W was achieved at 357 nm with a 5 V bias. The relationship between the responsivity and the bias voltage was measured. The responsivity saturated when the bias voltage reached 5 V. The response time of 4.8 ms was determined by the measurements of photocurrent versus modulation frequency. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 91 (1989), S. 1626-1630 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The laser-photolysis-recombination-luminescence-detection method was employed to measure the diffusion coefficients of Br–rare-gas systems. The measured values are DBr–He=0.66 ±0.11, DBr–Ne=0.25±0.04, DBr–Ar=0.16±0.03, DBr–Kr=0.12±0.02, and DBr–Xe =0.086±0.015 cm2/s, respectively, at 1 atm and 300 K. Also, the diffusion coefficient of Br–Br2 was measured to be 0.065±0.011 cm2/s. A comparison was made with the results calculated from the potential curves obtained by the crossed molecular beam experiments for the Br–Ar, Br–Kr, and Br–Xe systems, and with the datum of Br–Ar measured by the time resolved–mass spectrometry. The extent of the similarity of the diffusion constants between the Kr–rare-gas systems and the Br–rare-gas systems was discussed over the temperature range of 250K to 1050 K.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-8838
    Keywords: fuel cell stack ; mass transfer ; PEMFC ; strip design fuel cell
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract An empirical equation was developed to describe the electrode processes (activation, ohmic and mass-transfer) of PEMFC stacks over the entire current range. The potential–current and power–current curves of a strip PEMFC stack were fitted with the empirical equation under a variety of experimental humidity, temperature and stack length conditions. The concept of mass transfer impedance was defined mathematically in the present research. For the strip PEMFC stack, mass transfer impedance was only important at high currents. With decreasing humidity the mass transfer impedance increased considerably. With increasing temperature or stack cell number the mass transfer impedance increased only slightly.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0009-2614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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