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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objectives:  To investigate symptoms from the eyes and airways, elicited by perfume and fragrance products and associations between such symptoms and skin prick test reactivity, metacholine bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR), contact allergy, and eczema in a population based sample.Methods:  A questionnaire on mucosal symptoms elicited by fragrance products was mailed to 1189 persons who had participated in a Danish population-based study of allergic diseases in 1997/98. The study included measurement of BHR, skin prick testing, patch testing and history of hand eczema.Results:  The response rate to the questionnaire was 80%. Symptoms from the eyes or airways elicited by fragrance products were reported by 42%. There were no significant associations between these symptoms and skin prick test reactivity. Positive and independent statistical significant associations were found between BHR, perfume contact allergy and hand eczema, and symptoms from the eyes and airways elicited by fragrance products, also when adjusting for nickel contact allergy, age, gender psychological vulnerability, educational level and social class.Conclusions:  Individuals with BHR, hand eczema and/or perfume contact allergy, as opposed to those without, are more frequently and more severely bothered from the eyes or airways after volatile exposure to fragrance products. The lack of association with skin prick test reactivity indicates that IgE mediated allergic mechanisms do not play a major role in the development of these symptoms. Having hand eczema has the greatest impact on reporting mucosal symptoms elicited by fragrance products.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd/Inc.
    Contact dermatitis 50 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  The need for prevention to reduce the number of occupational hand eczema is high. Occupational hand eczema is the most frequently recognised work-related disease in Denmark. Previous findings have shown that almost half of all cases develop a chronic condition with persistent dermatitis, and the annual cost to society is immense.Aims:  The aim of this study was to survey the trends and development of occupational hand eczema in Denmark and thereby help to ensure future successful prevention of chronic disabling occupational hand eczema.Methods:  758 patients with recognised occupational hand eczema were included prospectively in the period October 2001- November 2002. Data on diagnoses, disease duration, severity, absence from work and occupation was obtained from The Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries and an additional questionnaire was administered by mail.Results:  621 patients answered the questionnaire (response rate 82%). Irritant contact dermatitis was the most frequent diagnosis and the female/male ratio was 2:1. High prevalence was found in particularly wet occupations. 19 per cent had sick leave more than 5 weeks per year and the mean disease duration was 4.8 years (median 2.1 years). 68.2% had chronic changes.Conclusion:  The results showed a marked gender difference in the pattern of diagnosis and occupation. The impact of occupational hand eczema is still high with prolonged absence from work and a high percentage of chronic disease. The results of the study give important suggestions for future preventive strategies for health authorities.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A new fragrance mix (FM II) with 6 frequently used chemicals was evaluated in consecutive patients patch tested in 6 dermatological centres in Europe. 28% FM II contained 5% Lyral, 1% citral, 5% farnesol, 5% coumarin, 1% citronellol and 10% alpha-hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (AHCA); in 14% FM II the single constituents’ concentrations was lowered to 50% and in 2.8% FM II to 10%. Each patient was classified regarding a history of adverse reactions to fragrances: certain, probable, questionable and none. The frequency of positive reactions to the currently used 8% fragrance mix (FM I) and the new mix in 1703 patients was as follows: FM I, 6.6%; 2.8% FM II, 1.3%; 14% FM II, 2.9%; 28% FM II, 4.1%. The number of doubtful/irritant reactions was 7.2% for FM I and ranged from 1.8% to 10.6% for FM II.8.7% of tested patients had a certain fragrance history. Of these 25.2% were positive to FM I, reactivity to FM II was dose-dependent and ranged from 8.1% to 17.6% in this subgroup. Comparing 2 groups of history – certain and none – values for sensitivity (sens) and specificity (spec) were calculated. Sens: FM I, 27.2%; 2.8% FM II, 8.7%; 14% FM II, 15.9%; 28% FM II, 21.5%. Spec: FM I, 96.3%; 2.8% FM II, 99.5%; 14% FM II, 98.7%; 28% FM II, 97.9%. 31/70 (44.3%) patients positive to 28% FM II were negative to FM I. In the group of patients with a certain history a total of 6 patients was found reacting only to FM II. Simultaneous break-down testing with the single constituents produced positive reactions in 54.3% for 28% FM II and 48% for 14% FM II. Lyral was the dominating single constituent with positive reactions (37.1% for 28% FM II, 36% for 14% FM II), followed by citral, farnesol, citronellol, AHCA and coumarin. Chemical analysis for the 6 constituents of FM II was performed on 25 products used by 12 patients being patch test positive to FM II. Lyral was detected in 76% of these products, citral in 16% and AHCA in 8%. In conclusion, the new FM II detects additional patients with contact allergy to fragrances missed by the currently used FM I. The medium concentration, 14% FM II, is probably the most useful one for diagnostic screening.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Exposure to fragrance chemicals causes various eye and airway symptoms. Individuals with perfume contact allergy report these symptoms more frequently than individuals with nickel allergy or no contact allergies. However, the associations between contact allergy and respiratory symptoms elicited by airborne chemicals other than perfumes are unclear. The study aimed to investigate the association between eye and airway symptoms elicited by airborne chemicals (other than perfumes) and contact allergy in a population-based sample. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was posted, in 2002, to 1189 individuals who participated in 1997/1998 in a Danish population-based study of allergic diseases. Questions about eye and airway symptoms elicited by different airborne chemicals and airborne proteins were included in the questionnaire. Data from the questionnaire were compared with data on patch testing and prick testing. Having at least 1 positive patch test (adjusted odds ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.5) was associated with the symptoms, and the odds ratio increased with the number of positive patch tests (P-value for test for trend 〈0.05). Bronchial hyperreactivity, female sex and psychological vulnerability were independently associated with symptoms, but no association was found between prick test reactivity to proteins and the symptoms elicited by airborne chemicals.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In clinical studies on hand eczema (HE) an objective and accurate assessment of the severity of the disease is needed. The present study was undertaken in order to develop and validate a scoring system called the hand eczema severity index (HECSI) designed for clinical assessment of HE. Twelve dermatologists (observers) assessed 15 HE patients (11 women and 4 men) twice with an interval of 30 min. To minimise recall bias only the hands and wrists of the patients were visible to the observers. Agreement between the observers was determined by using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC for total HECSI score was 0.79 at time 1 and 0.85 at time 2 respectively. When looking at ICC for the different items in the scoring system (extent of lesions, anatomical location and intensity of clinical signs) best agreement was found for extension followed by anatomical location and least agreement was found for the scoring of clinical signs. ICC for intraobserver agreement was 0.90. A regression correlation coefficient of 0.993 was found (simple linear regression analysis of time 1 scores against time 2 scores) indicating high reproducibility. Overall good agreement existed for both inter- and intraobserver reliability although some inter- and intraobserver variation existed.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd/Inc.
    Contact dermatitis 50 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objectives:  To identify substances and tonnage data for use for hair dyes registered in Europe. To predict the sensitization potential of each substance and to rank the substances due to their sensitization potential. Further to group the substances in clusters based on their physical chemical properties with a cluster analysis.Methods:  The Inventory list of Cosmetics Ingredients (INCI), new regulation on cosmetics, tonnage data for use and Toxnet were used to identify and quantify the hair dyes. Salts were disregarded. A QSAR (Qualitative structure-activity relationship) model called TOPS-MODE, based on local lymph node assay (LLNA) data and physical chemical properties were used to predict the sensitization potential and make a cluster analysis.Results:  Out of 315 hair dye substances 229 meet the inclusion criteria. Most of the hair dye substances 75% were predicted to be strong to moderate sensitizers. Less were predicted to be weak 22% and only a small part 3% were predicted to be extremely weak or non sensitizing. The 8 most used hair dye substances were predicted to be strong to moderate sensitizers. Ppd is the most used hair dye allergy marker but some azodyes were predicted to be more potent than para-phenylenediamine (ppd).Conclusions:  Most hair dye substances are predicted to be strong to moderate sensitizers, which explain why some people gets hair dye dermatitis. A patch test series with potent, much used azodyes, might prove useful in diagnosing ppd-negative patients, with hair dye allergy. The cluster analysis grouped the substances which can be helpful choosing substances for clinical patch test.
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