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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Photosynthesis ; Regulation ; Thioredoxin ; Cyanobacterium ; Chromatium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Enzymes that are regulated by the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system in chloroplasts — fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase purified from two different types of photosynthetic prokaryotes (cyanobacteria, purple sulfur bacteria) and tested for a response to thioredoxins. Each of the enzymes from the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum, an oxygenic organism known to contain the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system, was activated by thioredoxins that had been reduced either chemically by dithiothreitol or photochemically by reduced ferredoxin and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase. Like their chloroplast counterparts, N. muscorum FBPase and SBPase were activated preferentially by reduced thioredoxin f. SBPase was also partially activated by thioredoxin m. PRK, which was present in two regulatory forms in N. muscorum, was activated similarly by thioredoxins f and m. Despite sharing the capacity for regulation by thioredoxins, the cyanobacterial FBPase and SBPase target enzymes differed antigenically from their chloroplast counterparts. The corresponding enzymes from Chromatium vinosum, an anoxygenic photosynthetic purple bacterium found recently to contain the NADP/thioredoxin sytem, differed from both those of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts in showing no response to reduced thioredoxin. Instead, C. vinosum FBPase, SBPase, and PRK activities were regulated by a metabolite effector, 5′-AMP. The evidence is in accord with the conclusion that thioredoxins function in regulating the reductive pentose phosphate cycle in oxygenic prokaryotes (cyanobacteria) that contain the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system, but not in anoxygenic prokaryotes (photosynthetic purple bacteria) that contain the NADP/thioredoxin system. In organisms of the latter type, enzyme effectors seem to play a dominant role in regulating photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 24 (1975), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: —RNA metabolism in isolated brain nuclei has been shown to be dramatically altered during early postnatal brain development. The present study involved an examination of the RNA products synthesized by nuclei at various stages of postnatal neural maturation. In all cases, the majority of the RNA appeared to be heterodisperse, non-ribosomal and non-tRNA in nature. In comparison to the RNA isolated from nuclei of neonatal tissue, the RNA from nuclei of 12-day and 30-day-old mouse brain was found to be of smaller molecular weight. Despite the heterodisperse nature of these RNA molecules, the addition of α-amanitin did not completely inhibit nuclear synthesis.An investigation of RNA synthesis in isolated neuronal and glial cell nuclei revealed that nucleic acid metabolism in these respective cell populations had different and distinct developmental patterns. Preparations enriched with glial cell nuclei were found to be most active at birth and then decreased in activity (3–4-fold) during neural maturation. On the other hand, the rate of RNA synthesis in fractions enriched in neuronal cell nuclei was observed to increase dramatically in activity (4–5-fold) until 14 days of age. From 14 days of age until adulthood, RNA synthetic activity remained essentially the same.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 23 (1974), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract— The activity and kinetic characteristics of tRNA methyltransferases were measured with enzyme preparations obtained from neonatal and adult mouse brain tissue. Both neonatal and mature brain enzyme preparations were shown to contain a considerable amount of protein methylase activity which could interfere with the measurement of the tRNA methyltransferases. When increasing amounts of the unfractionated enzymes from young and adult neural tissue were added to reaction mixtures, the saturation kinetics were found to be considerably different. However, fractionation of the samples by precipitation at pH 5 resulted in an increase in the enzyme activity of preparations obtained from adult brain. Although the precipitation at pH 5 allowed a quantitative recovery of the enzyme activity of immature brain samples, this partial purification step led to an apparent activation of the tRNA methyltransferases in adult preparations. This activation was shown to be independent of differential changes in the thermolability of the enzymes but rather to be associated with an increase in the sites methylated and the measured affinity of the adult enzyme preparations with the tRNA substrate. Nicotinamide, a potent inhibitor of tRNA methyltransferase activity in other tissues, was shown to be ineffective in modulating brain tRNA methyltransferase activity. The results are discussed in light of the possible modulation of the activity of specific enzyme species and the alterations in the synthesis of nucleic acid precursors during neural development.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: —The regulation of protein synthesis by ribosomes isolated from mouse brain tissue was studied using a cell-free polyphenylalanine synthesizing system. Polypeptide synthesis was followed by assaying translocation and analysing the reaction products by BD-cellulose chromatography. The brain ribosomal activity could be divided by these methods into two distinct steps : binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome and active translocation leading to subsequent polyphenylalanine synthesis. In comparison to initial binding of aminoacyl-tRNA, translocation in the cell-free system increased the incorporation of labelled phenylalanine by 10-fold. An analysis of the reaction products clearly showed active ribosomal synthesis of oligophenylalanine from [3H]phe-tRNA. Ribosomes isolated from neonatal brain tissue were 2–4 times as active as those obtained from adult brain tissue in polypeptide synthesis. In addition, polypeptides synthesized on the more active ribosomes from neonates tended to be of greater chain length than those from adult. Therefore, the maturation-dependent decrease in ribosomal protein synthetic activity during neural development was shown to be directly associated with the ribosome particles.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 18 (1971), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The ability of brain ribosomes, isolated from mice of various ages, to bind phenylalanyl-tRNA was measured under various reaction conditions. In the presence of template RNA (polyuridylic acid) the binding could be measured by both enzymic and non-enzymic assays. In general, the binding requirements for the brain system were similar to those previously described for microbial and eukaryotic systems. Although previous studies have shown that ribosomes obtained from increasingly older mow brain tissue were less active in polyphenylalanine synthesis, no significant differences in phenylalanyl-tRNA binding to polysome complexes could be detected. The binding of phenylalanyl-tRNA by ribosomes isolated from both neonatal and mature mouse brain tissue was similar with regard to GTP and polyuridylic acid dependence, magnesium ion concentration and reaction kinetics. Similar binding of phenylalanyl-tRNA by young and mature brain ribosomes was also measured with ribonucleoprotein particles previously stripped with puromycin. The results are discussed in light of the rapid alteration of macromolecular synthesis during postnatal brain development and the possible role of the interaction between ribosomes and tRNA.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract— Ribosomes, isolated from brain tissue of mice of various ages, were tested for their ability to participate in cell-free protein synthesis and to bind polyuridylic acid. Although protein synthesis was markedly reduced by ribosomal preparations obtained from increasingly older animals, no significant differences could be measured with respect to template RNA binding. Similar binding properties were also measured with ribosomal subunits purified from young and mature brain cell ribonucleoprotein particles. In addition, no differences could be detected in the relative firmness of template RNA binding that could explain the maturation-dependent loss in ribosomal activity.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 14 (1967), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 27 (1976), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract– The addition of a dialyzed cytosol preparation from various types of mouse tissue, guinea-pig brain, and neuroblastoma cells resulted in an increased incorporation of [3H]GTP into RNA by mouse brain nuclei. In addition to a stimulation of the incorporation of [3H]GTP into RNA. the presence of these cytosol preparations also caused a significant increase in nuclear RNA transcript size. Although all cell cytosols appeared to influence nuclear RNA metabolism to some degree, dialyzed mouse serum had little stimulatory effect on brain nuclear RNA synthesis and failed to cause an increase in RNA product size. The polyanion, heparin, was found to be highly stimulatory to brain nuclear RNA synthesis although the size of the resulting RNA products was not significantly altered. RNA synthesis by neuronal and glial nuclei, isolated from adult brain tissue, showed a differential response to the presence of brain cytosol preparations. In the absence of cytosol, RNA synthesis by neuronal nuclei was more active than that measured in glial nuclei, and when the RNA products were analyzed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, those of glial nuclei were considerably larger than those isolated from neuronal nuclei. The addition of cytosol caused a significant increase in RNA transcript size with neuronal nuclei of adult brain tissue while little, if any, change in the size of the RNA products was measured with nuclei isolated from glial cells. Although an overall increase in product size could be measured in response to the addition of dialyzed cytosol with neuronal nuclei of 2,10, 20-day old and adult (over 60 days of age) brain tissue, a greater response was measured with nuclei prepared from the brains of more mature animals where the proportion of larger RNA products (〉10S) was greatly increased.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Incubation of brain cell suspensions with 14 mM-phenylalanine resulted in rapid alterations of amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis. Both thc rate of uptake and the final intracellular concentration of several radioactively-labelled amino acids were decreased by high concentrations oi phenylalanine. By prelabelling cells with radioactive amino acids, phenylalanine was also shown to effect a rapid loss of the labelled amino acids from brain cells. Amino acid analysis after the incubation of the cells with phenylalanine indicated that several amino acids were decreased in their intracellular concentrations with effects similar to those measured with radioisotopic experiments (large neutral 〉 small and large basic 〉 small neutral 〉 acidic amino acids). Although amino acid uptake and efflux were altered by the presence of 14 mwphenylalanine, little or no alteration was detected in the resulting specific activity of the intracellular amino acids. High levels of phenylalanine did not significantly altcr cellular catabolism of either alanine, lysine, leucine or isoleucine. As determined by the isolation of labcllcd aminoacyl-tRNA from cells incubated with and without phenylalanine, there was little or no alteration in the level of this precursor for radioactive alanine and lysine. There was, however, a detectable decrease in thc labelling of aminoacyl-tRNA for leucine and isoleucine. Only aftcr correcting for the changes of the specific activity of the precursors and thcir availability to translational events, could the effects of phenylalanine on protein synthesis be established. An inhibition of the incorporation into protein for each amino acid was approximately 20%.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 23 (1974), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: —The elucidation of the translational regulatory events which function during the critical fetal and neonatal period is an important prerequisite to our understanding of normal, as well as abnormal, brain growth and differentiation. Brain cell suspensions and cell-free homogenates were employed to study the protein synthetic activity during the maturation of fetal- neural tissue. The results clearly demonstrated that while neural tissue from 1-day postnatal mice was 10 times more active in protein synthesis than brain tissue from adult mice, the former was many fold less active in translational events than fetal neural tissue from 13-day post-zygotic mice. Fetal polypeptide synthetic activity was found to decrease from the 13th day to the 19th day post-zygotic. This decrement in the translational activity was not due to amino acid availability or pools, or to differences, quantitatively or qualitatively, in polysome concentrations. The enhanced rate of protein synthetic activity measured with neural tissue from 13-day post-zygotic mice was shown to be due to an increase in rate of protein synthesis and not to an enhanced rate of protein degradation.
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